Advanced Pathophysiology Across the Lifespan

Use the data given to calculate annual returns for Goodman, Landry, and the Market Index
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Question 2.                

A 13-year-old female is undergoing rapid development of her breasts after experiencing menarche several months ago. Which of the following hormones are NOT active in the development of her breasts?

Prolactin

Oxytocin

Estrogen

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Progesterone

 

 

 

Question 4.                

A 51-year-old woman who has been receiving estrogen and progesterone therapy (EPT) for the last 5 years has visited her care provider because her peers have told her about the risks of heart disease, stroke, and breast cancer that could accompany hormone therapy (HT). How should her care provider respond to her concerns?

“There is a demonstrable increase in breast cancer risk with HT, but the risk of stroke or heart disease actually goes down slightly.”

“All things considered, the benefits of HT outweigh the slightly increased risks of heart disease, stroke, or breast cancer.”

“HT is actually associated with a decrease in heart disease risk, but there is an increase in stroke risk; the breast cancer connection is still unclear.”

“There’s in fact a slight protective effect against stroke associated with HT, but this is partially offset by increased rates of heart disease and breast cancer.”

 

 

Question 5.               

After a long and frustrating course of constant vaginal pain, a 38-year-old woman has been diagnosed with generalized vulvodynia by her nurse practitioner. What treatment plan is her nurse practitioner most likely to propose?

Alternative herbal therapies coupled with antifungal medications

Antidepressant and antiepileptic medications

Lifestyle modifications aimed at accommodating and managing neuropathic pain

Narcotic analgesia and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications

 

 

 

Question 6.                

Which of the following situations would be considered pathologic in an otherwise healthy 30-year-old female?

The woman’s ovaries are not producing new ova.

The woman’s ovaries do not synthesize or secrete luteinizing hormone (LH).

The epithelium covering the woman’s ovaries is broken during the time of ovulation.

The woman’s ovaries are not producing progesterone

 

 

Question 9.                

A 24-year-old woman has presented to an inner-city free clinic because of the copious, foul vaginal discharge that she has had in recent days. Microscopy has confirmed the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis. What is the woman’s most likely treatment and prognosis?

Abstinence will be required until the infection resolves, since treatments do not yet have proven efficacy.

Oral antibiotics can prevent complications such as infertility and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Antifungal medications are effective against the anovulation and risk of HIV that accompany the infection.

Vaginal suppositories and topical ointments can provide symptom relief but cannot eradicate the microorganism.

 

 

 

Question 13.              

A 71-year-old man has visited his nurse practitioner for a check-up, during which the nurse practitioner has initiated a discussion about the patient’s sexual function. Which of the following phenomena would the nurse practitioner most likely consider a pathological rather than an age-related change?

The presence of relative or absolute hypogonadism

A decrease in the size and firmness of the patient’s testes

Cessation of FSH production

A decrease in the force of the man’s ejaculation

 

 

Question 15.              

A 57-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with atrophic vaginitis has expressed her surprise to her care provider, citing a lifetime largely free of gynecological health problems. She has asked what may have contributed to her problem. How can the care provider best respond?

“The lower levels of estrogen since you’ve begun menopause make your vagina prone to infection.”

“Vaginitis is not usually the direct result of any single problem, but rather an inevitability of the vaginal dryness that accompanies menopause.”

“This type of vaginitis is most commonly a symptom of a latent sexually transmitted infection that you may have contracted in the distant past.”

“The exact cause of this problem isn’t known, but it can usually be resolved with a diet high in probiotic bacteria.”

 

Question 17.              

A 29-year-old woman has been trying for many months to become pregnant, and fertilization has just occurred following her most recent ovulation. What process will now occur that will differentiate this ovulatory cycle from those prior?

Human chorionic gonadotropin will be produced, preventing luteal regression.

The remaining primary follicles will provide hormonal support for the first 3 months of pregnancy.

The corpus luteum will atrophy and be replaced by corpus albicans.

The basal layer of the endometrium will be sloughed in preparation for implantation.

 

 

Question 21.             

A 20-year-old male has been diagnosed with a chlamydial infection, and his primary care provider is performing teaching in an effort to prevent the patient from infecting others in the future. Which of the following statements by the patient demonstrates the best understanding of his health problem?

“Either me or a partner could end up with an eye infection from chlamydia that could make us blind.”

“Even though I couldn’t end up sterile, a woman that I give it to certainly could.”

“Each of the three stages of the disease seems to be worse than the previous one.”

“Even if I spread it to someone else, there’s a good chance she won’t have any symptoms or know she has it.”

 

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