Because of physiological and behavioral differences, exposures among children are expected to be different from exposures among adults.

Reflect on a patient who is beyond 20 weeks gestation and presented with a health problem that commonly arises during pregnancy.
July 30, 2019
Potential and Kinetic Energy
July 30, 2019

QUESTION 1 (1 POINT)

 

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The original vision of charter schools in 1988, when the idea was popularized, was that they would be created by venturesome public school teachers who would seek out the most alienated students, those who had dropped out or those who were likely to do so. The teachers in these experimental schools would find better ways to reach these students and bring what they’d learned back to the regular public school. The fundamental idea at the beginning of the movement was that charter schools would help public schools and enroll students who needed extra attention and new strategies.

From Ravitch, Diane. “Why I Changed My Mind.” The Nation 14 June 2010: 20-24. Print. The passage appears on page 22 of the article.Question 1 options: A or B

A Ravitch notes that the original vision for charter schools gave support to the work of public schools by helping some of the most alienated students who would benefit from extra attention and new strategies (22).
B Ravitch notes that originally charter schools were supposed to reach at-risk students with better strategies and creative teachers. These teachers would then also find ways to share these innovations with more traditional public schools (22).

QUESTION 2 (1 POINT)

 

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Paul Revere’s ride is perhaps the most famous historical example of a word-of-mouth epidemic. A piece of extraordinary news traveled a long distance in a very short time, mobilizing an entire region to arms. Not all word-of-mouth epidemics are this sensational, of course. But it is safe to say that word of mouth is—even in this age of mass communications and multimillion-dollar advertising campaigns—still the most important form of human communication. 

From Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point. New York: Little, Brown, 2002. Print. The passage appears on page 32.Question 2 options: A or B

A Paul Revere’s well-known ride is the best example in history of a word-of-mouth epidemic. His piece of important information covered a long distance in no time, preparing large numbers of neighbors for battle. However, Gladwell states, not every word-of-mouth epidemic is this significant. Yet even given our era of mass media and advertisements, word of mouth is “the most important form of human communication” (32).
B According to Gladwell, the best known example from history of a word-of-mouth epidemic may be Paul Revere’s ride. His news covered great distances, quickly preparing his neighbors for battle. Not every word-of-mouth epidemic is this significant. But even in our era of mass media, word of mouth is “the most important form of human communication” (32).

QUESTION 3 (1 POINT)

 

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Scientists say juggling e-mail, phone calls and other incoming information can change how people think and behave. They say our ability to focus is being undermined by bursts of information. These play to a primitive impulse to respond to immediate opportunities and threats. The stimulation provokes excitement — a dopamine squirt — that researchers say can be addictive. In its absence, people feel bored.
From Richtel, Matt. “Hooked on Gadgets, and Paying a Mental Price.” New York Times. New York Times,7 June 2010. Web. The article was accessed online, in a version that appeared without page numbers.Question 3 options: A or B

A Research shows that juggling messages, calls, and other information can affect our behavior. These bursts of information are changing our ability to focus by working on our primitive need to respond to immediate opportunities. Later, without these stimuli, we become bored (Richtel).
B Researchers explain that we erode our ability to focus when we expose ourselves to constant e-mail, messages, and other bits of information. These stimuli excite the brain but can become addictive so that when the stimuli are removed we become bored (Richtel).

QUESTION 4 (1 POINT)

 

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Assange also wanted to insure that, once the video was posted online, it would be impossible to remove. He told me that WikiLeaks maintains its content on more than twenty servers around the world and on hundreds of domain names. (Expenses are paid by donations, and a few independent well-wishers also run “mirror sites” in support.) Assange calls the site “an uncensorable system for untraceable mass document leaking and public analysis,” and a government or company that wanted to remove content from WikiLeaks would have to practically dismantle the Internet itself. 

From Khatchadourian, Raffi. “No Secrets: Julian Assange’s Mission for Total Transparency.” New Yorker. TheNew Yorker,7 June 2010. Web. The article was reprinted without page numbers online.Question 4 options: A or B

A Assange makes sure that videos on WikiLeaks cannot be deleted, using multiple servers and back-up sites in locations around the world. His goal is to make WikiLeaks documents impossible to trace or censor and to make the system impossible to dismantle (Khatchadourian).
B Assange’s goal is for documents leaked on WikiLeaks to be impossible for governments or companies to trace or censor. The WikiLeaks content is maintained on multiple servers and back-up sites in locations around the world (Khatchadourian).

QUESTION 5 (1 POINT)

 

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Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers in 2008 more closely resembled normal corporations with solid, Middle American values than did any Wall Street firm circa 1985. The changes were camouflage. They helped to distract outsiders from the truly profane event: the growing misalignment of interests between the people who trafficked in financial risk and the wider culture. The surface rippled, but down below, in the depths, the bonus pool remained undisturbed. 
From Lewis, Michael. The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine. New York: Norton, 2010. Print. The passage appears on page 254.Question 5 options: A or B

A Lewis explains that changes to Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers by 2008 made them appear more like typical American companies. These new values were not deeply held. They enabled these Wall Street firms to mask their deeper interests. There appeared to be change, but below the surface, the culture of big bonuses was not touched (254).
B By 2008, changes made Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers appear to have values more like those of typical American companies. These values were only superficially held, Lewis explains, to mask risk from outsiders. In reality, the culture of big bonuses at these firms was unchanged (254).

QUESTION 6 (1 POINT)

 

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Unlike the staggered luncheon sessions I observed at Walton High, lunch was served in a single sitting to the students in this school. “It’s physically impossible to feed 3,300 kids at once,” the teacher said. “The line for kids to get their food is very long and the entire period lasts only 30 minutes. It takes them 15 minutes just to walk there from their classes and get through the line. They get 10 minutes probably to eat their meals. A lot of them don’t try. You’ve been a teacher, so you can imagine what it does to students when they have no food to eat for an entire day. The schoolday here at Fremont is eight hours long.”
From Kozol, Jonathan. The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America. New York: Crown, 2005. Print. The passage appears on page 176.Question 6 options: A or B 

A Kozol observes the strain on Fremont’s students at lunchtime, where all of the 3,300 students in attendance are served in one 30-minute meal period. One teacher calculates that the extended the walk to the cafeteria and long food lines create a 10-minute window for students to eat. What often results is that many students go all day without a meal (176).
B There is obvious strain on Fremont’s students at lunchtime, where all of the 3,300 students in attendance are served in one 30-minute meal period. One teacher calculates that the extended the walk to the cafeteria and long food lines create a 10-minute window for students to eat. What often results is that many students go all day without a meal.

QUESTION 7 (1 POINT)

 

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Because of physiological and behavioral differences, exposures among children are expected to be different from exposures among adults. Children may be more exposed to some environmental contaminants, because they consume more of certain foods and water per unit of body weight and have a higher ratio of body surface area to volume than adults. Equally important, rapid changes in behavior and physiology may lead to differences in exposure as a child grows up. 
From United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (Final Report).Sept. 2008. Web. 5 November 2009. The passage appears on page 1-1.Question 7 options: A or B

A In its handbook, the United States Environmental Protection Agency sets out factors for assessing children’s exposure to various contaminants and pollutants. Children are more vulnerable to chemicals than adults because they consume more food and water as a proportion of their body weight. Children’s exposure to environmental pollutants through their body surface area may be significantly higher than that for adults. And as children grow and behaviors change, their exposure also changes (1-1).
B In its handbook, the United States Environmental Protection Agency sets out factors for assessing children’s exposure to various contaminants and pollutants. Children may be more exposed to some chemicals than adults because they consume more food and water as a proportion of their body weight. A child’s exposure to environmental chemicals through their body surface area may be significantly higher than that for adults. As important, changes in behavior and children’s bodies mean different exposures (1-1).

QUESTION 8 (1 POINT)

 

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Thomas Jefferson had made it unmistakably clear to Lewis and Clark that their foremost objective was to find “the direct water communication from sea to sea formed by the bed of the Missouri & perhaps the Oregon.” But in his detailed letter of instructions to Lewis, Jefferson devoted more words to the Indian nations than to any other topic. Not only was Jefferson intensely curious about the tribes, he wanted Lewis and Clark to wean their loyalties away from the despised British traders and enfold them into the orbit of American trade and commerce.
From Jones, Landon Y. William Clark and the Shaping of the West. New York: Hill-Farrar, 2004. The passage appears on pages 130-31.Question 8 options: A or B

A Thomas Jefferson’s instructions to Lewis and Clark laid out their main goal which was to find a water route west to the Pacific Ocean. Jefferson’s letter, however, also made clear his great interest in the Indian nations they would meet and his secondary objective: Lewis and Clark should work to persuade Indian nations to trade with Americans and not the British (Jones, 130-31).
B Thomas Jefferson clearly explains in his instructions that Lewis and Clark are to find a direct water route to the west coast. But he also goes on at length about Indian nations in the letter. Not only did Jefferson want to find out more about the tribes, he was eager for Lewis and Clark to persuade Indian traders to abandon ties with the hated British and bring them into the sphere of American traders (Jones, 130-31).

QUESTION 9 (1 POINT)

 

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Yoko became the epitome of Fluxus multimedia antiart. Her works tended to be sculpture, or rather three-dimensional collage, assembled from quotidian objects and usually inviting physical contact with the observer. Sometimes the creation would be a piece of theatre, with the role of the artwork played by the artist and the audience’s reactions serving to illuminate some truth about the nature of art or the human condition in general. 
From Norman, Phillip. John Lennon: The Life. New York: Random, 2009. Print. The excerpt is from page 474.Question 9 options: A or B

A Yoko Ono’s multimedia antiart, as Norman describes it, illuminated truths about the human condition with Ono herself playing the role of the artwork. Some pieces were sculpture made up of assembled objects, while other pieces were like theater pieces that involved human contact (474).
B Yoko Ono’s multimedia art, as Norman describes it, included sculptures made out of everyday objects while often encouraging the viewer to come into contact with the art. Her work, particularly the pieces that were like theater, challenged viewers to react and to think about the definition of art (474).

QUESTION 10 (1 POINT)

 

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Some recent studies have explored the existence of behavior in toddlers that is “altruistic” in an even stronger sense — like when they give up their time and energy to help a stranger accomplish a difficult task. The psychologists Felix Warneken and Michael Tomasello have put toddlers in situations in which an adult is struggling to get something done, like opening a cabinet door with his hands full or trying to get to an object out of reach. The toddlers tend to spontaneously help, even without any prompting, encouragement or reward.
From Bloom, Paul. “The Moral Life of Babies.” New York Times Magazine. New York Times,9 May 2010. Web. The passage appears on page 47.Question 10 options: A or B 

A New studies reveal that toddlers engage in altruistic behavior. Bloom reports on experiments where toddlers came to the aid of a stranger struggling with a physical task, without external prompts (47).
B New studies reveal altruistic behavior in toddlers who are observed giving help to strangers working on a difficult task. For example, without encouragement or reward toddlers spontaneously offer help to an adult struggling to complete a difficult task like getting an object that is out of reach (Warneken and Tomasello 47).

 

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Because of physiological and behavioral differences, exposures among children are expected to be different from exposures among adults. was first posted on July 30, 2019 at 3:59 pm.
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