Gene Testing

Gene Testing

Considering a number of issues, the testing of genes to determine whether an individual is at risk of a particular disorder may not be an agreeable affair to many. To begin with, the ordeal of looking for one’s risk to multiple disorders is highly costly. In the event that the results that indicate susceptibleness to a certain disorder/disease are reported to the insurance company, the premiums are as a result raised. The knowledge that one is predisposed to develop a specific complication may lead to stress and anxiety. Such complications may be an unnecessary burden because the complexity may never develop at all.

The lack of certainty is another factor that renders genetic testing for health disorder risk altogether a futile effort. Ideally, the test results only indicate whether an individual has a higher or a lower chance than the average person of developing said complications. For instance, the risk with a specific variety of gene mutation may be declared to have a 75% risk for breast cancer. Still, it is possible that it may never develop. Conversely, another individual whose test results indicated a 25% chance may end up developing the complication. Specific mutations only show the risk, but cannot precisely predict incidence.

There is a possibility that chromosome or gene mutation will not be detected in some people. This is more indicative of the fact that the current technologies are not capable of detecting some variations, especially when there are no significant genetic mutations. Moreover, genetic disorders are not the root cause for all diseases as both lifestyle and environmental factors also play a crucial role in determining the illnesses one will suffer from. On this basis, gene testing may not be a sure way of assessing the health risks that an individual faces. 

Another limitation to gene testing is that although some diseases may come as a direct consequence of faulty gene makeup, it is not necessarily true that the procedure will reveal this fact. Genetic tests are mainly limited to the testing of penetrant diseases-those that are strongly connected to a particular gene makeup. Furthermore, it is not possible to use the criteria to determine the severity of the disease incidence once it occurs. The process will only provide limited info about an inherited complication. In addition to not showing the seriousness of the condition once it occurs, there is no indication in the results as to how far the condition will progress. There is also a lack of strategic treatment plans for the illness once it occurs. 

Gene testing can prove to be an emotionally consuming affair; especially to children of under 18 years of age, as well as, adults who are unprepared to the verdict of the results. Upon receiving the news that they are 75% prone to get cancer, some may develop stress, guilt, anxiety, or depression. This may lead to additional health complications which are unfounded since cancer may never develop. Further, there are cases of individuals who may develop guilt as a result of the learning that some people in their family have certain gene mutations which they lack themselves. There is also the possibility of tension and panic within the family if the test results are shared. Therefore, I would not want to have my genes or that of my children due to the compelling consequences of the practice.

Firewall technology

Firewall technology

The global state of the world has made technology to be almost a basic need in the way things are done. The current advancement in technology has led to many innovative ways of doing things (Bheemavarapu et al., 2018). The automation of many machines has really made the human manual labor to be replaced by the programmed machines. This has really questioned the power of the mind of man in doing some of the tasks that the machines can do. The fact that technological advancement is changing the world makes it possible to embrace what comes (Schulze, 2018, June). The move has OI been very instrumental in changing the view of the effectiveness of performance of duties. This is because the machines use automated energy that is controlled by the human effort. The overall impact is that they improved work without fatigue (Kumar et al., 2018).

Purpose of Firewall

This modern advancement has been very instrumental in making the safety of both the operating hardware and software to be sorted (Saadawi, 2018). With this in place, there has been a good way ensuring that the systems are guarded for efficient performance. The interaction between private internet and internet has made it possible to have good control policies that guarantee much security (Dzinkowski, 2018). With the combination of the hardware and the software, the risk of a security breach is made possible because the systems are connected (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). The two software form a protective wall that makes there to be a divergence between the corporate network and the outside world.

The data security is made in a way that makes organizations to keep its business or corporate information as private and confidential (Cox et al., 2018). The way this is done is by putting a computerized system in place to provide security to all the information that a specific organization has. Recent developments in computer science have made social online platforms to be a tricky sector that needs to be handled with much care (Caceres, 2017). Some of the advancements have been so positive making the field to be simplified in the execution of the duties (Hamlett, 2014). This has made people to embrace the field since it is a digital program that simplifies work and saves people from the manual tasks (Zhao, 2016). On the other hand, the negative impacts have been escalating in considerable frequency.

Cybercrime has been the talk of the day in the international software grounds. Some suppliers of some software’s have been doing some underground work through some frameworks in the programming models that make use of webs that are unacceptably dark (Kumar, 2015). This makes them crop in the programmed systems and perform all the necessary activities required to do cyber-attacks (Christiana & Cooper, 2018). For instance, in May 2015, some software experts made use of “tox”, which is a construction kit that uses ransomware. This was one of the ways that the coordinate spreading of the return of the transactions of the cybercrimes was facilitated (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). This remains one of the disadvantages of having open software that is subjected to too much greater risks.

The access of the secure software by the cybercriminals has been a challenge in putting trust on the data security (Krit & Haimoud, 2017 May). A lot of crucial information is kept in the security systems in the organization’s software, which demands a guarantee that the information will not be risked to be in the hands of the wrong people (Sharif, & Abdullah, 2018). Cybercrimes are increasing at an alarming rate in the contemporary world hence compromising the trust that people have on software systems in the long-run.

The advancement in technology has made different organizations to adopt different firewalls that are functional in society (Mathur & Nishchal, 2010, October). This has eased the functioning role of many management authorities because their roles are made simpler. They are responsible for ensuring that the information that concerns the company is maintained within the required boundaries (Eykholt & Caceres, 2017). There is a need for good investment in the systems so that the data is secured for the benefit of the organizations. The workers in any organization have a responsibility of embracing the organization’s goals by keeping the information to themselves if need be (Zhao, 2016).

Types of Firewall Technologies

Software Firewalls. Firewalls are of different types based on the function that it performs best. Packet filtering firewall applies a set of rules that make use of the incoming and outgoing IP address which then discards the part after use (Smyth, 2005). Depending on the type of firewall, the system can be made in such a way that allows configuration of the filter packets in many directions. This applies to and from the internal networks. It has the source IP address which makes the IP work. The destination IP dress enables the system to reach all corners of operation. The IP protocol field is responsible for transporting the protocol to the needed destination (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). The interface of the firewall makes it possible to interconnectivity to happen in the three ports.

This type of firewall is so flexible in the way it is used, because it enables the people working with the system to feel its simplicity in the long run (Naik et al., 2018). This happens because they do not examine the upper layer that employs the data vulnerability. However, one of the limitations of this type of firewall is that it has limited information in the database. This makes it have limited uses mainly in small organizations. It also has a small number of variable information that makes it unfit for configurations in most of the security systems (Sharif, & Abdullah, 2018). The configuration of such systems does not guarantee much reliability in matters of data security.

Circuit-level gateway is another form of firewall used in modern industries as a data security mechanism. It is important to note that the application level in the system enables it to have a stand-alone functional system that improves its efficiency. It does not permit an end to end connection in its use. This makes it unique because it makes use of some system update mechanism that is useful in almost all types of industries (Zhao, 2016). The multipurpose use is one of the convenient characteristics that make it the choice of many organizations that need such systems.

The firewall is able to be used typically, which indicates that the administrator is able to allow it to be to be used by a different user, hence making the user convenient. The client-server applications are made possible through the use of some system protocols that increase the security of the system (Fernandez et al., 2014). The implication of this is the establishment of a connection that is object reachable. This makes it easy for the operating system to have an established way of making information systems to work efficiently (Zhao, 2016). It can either establish the appropriate connection or deny in the long-run.

Application gateway firewall is another device that acts as a relay to the application traffic system by making use of the gateway as a remote host for accessibility (Dhayapule et al., 2018). The user does this by providing a valid authentication by use of proxies that are necessary for information flow (Morgan, 2016). The authority of this function is made possible through the installation of the right proxies that are connected through the two ends. The specific codes are made by the specific applications that make the firewalls to be able to perform the required functions (Sun, 2015). There is a set of support that controls all the activities from the central point hence making the operations to be performed with much ease (Barnes et al., 2009).

A personal firewall is another type that helps in controlling the traffic network between the personal computer and the workstation that one can be having (Peisert et al., 2018). The enterprise network or the internet is maintained on the other side that makes the interconnection possible. Most of these fireworks are less complex and therefore they can be used by people even in their homes because of their portability (Knight, 2005). They have the primary role of denying the unauthorized access to some areas by people who may have malicious plans concerning the access of the systems (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). They also monitor the outgoing activities to block other malware that may be present in the system (Ingrand & Ghallab, 2017). However, most of the software firewalls discussed above cannot single handedly offer adequate protection, hence the vulnerability of malicious attacks is still significant even with the use of the security mechanisms. Therefore, to offer considerably protection, organization must explore other methods of boosting information system (IS) security to significantly reduce the vulnerability of ISs.

Hardware Firewalls. There exist numerous hardware firewalls, which can boost IS protection from malicious software attacks. Most of the existing hardware firewalls use a similar basic principle to protect internet users from cyber-attacks. A router, which possesses natural firewall-like characteristics, is one of the many hardware firewalls. In a router-computer network, the router assigns a unique address to every computer, while it retains a single IP (Internet Protocol) address to direct traffic. In this regard, targeting a particular computer behind a router, becomes much more difficult than in one-on-one direct connections. Although all routers possess firewall properties, more expensive categories, especially from the same manufacturers as the basic ones, have particular characteristics to attacks from malicious users. Sophisticated hardware firewalls utilize the Stateful Pack Inspection (SPI) technique, which involves screening particular content of traffic in a network to establish any code that can potentially cause harm, while basic routers only bar specific addresses and computer ports. Thus, a combination of sophisticated (to scan the content of a network traffic to identify malicious software) and basic (block the harmful code source IP addresses and computers ports) hardware firewalls can immensely improve IS security in an organization without significantly increasing the cost of computer network implementation.

Like their software counterparts, hardware firewalls cannot in isolation offer, sufficient IS security in modern computer networks. According to Varadhan and Gomes (2015), although routers protect specific computers from attacks, they more easily spread malware across a network if one or more computers connected to them acquires a malware, such as a virus maybe from internet downloads compared to when in separate connections. Easy spread of malware across a network is a huge risk, because a single user can easily compromise the functionality of the entire IS in an organization, hence immensely increasing the cost of recovery and business continuity mechanisms. Therefore, hardware firewalls require information system security reinforcement mechanisms to ensure significant risk mitigation and reduced cost of recovery from attacks.

A Combination of Software and Hardware Firewalls. Both hardware and software firewalls possess inherent drawbacks, hence cannot offer significant IS security in isolation, but their combination can immensely boost information security outcome. Hardware firewalls can immensely increase the cost of operation recovery from malicious attacks, because of their inherent drawback of introducing a significant high level attack vulnerability. However, the SPI capability in hardware firewall is highly essential in detecting specific malware and block their source IP address or computer ports from accessing the network, hence completely reducing the threat of attack. On the other hand, software firewalls mostly offer a universal blockade for a wide range of threat categories without any form of specification. Threats that do not fall in the range of software firewall protection can easily surpass it, hence end-up compromising IS security. Furthermore, too much use of software firewalls can even block non-threating traffic, hence immensely reduce the network effectiveness. In this regard, introducing a level of hardware firewalls to specific threats that surpass the software firewalls, as well as reduce the chances of barring essential traffic, by reducing the number of universal blockades, is essential in modern computer networks that require high level IS security protection and functionality. Nevertheless, although the combination of software hardware firewalls can offer considerable protection, there still exists an avalanche of IS threats, which a released in the modern market at a very high rate (Kaur, Kaur & Gupta, 2016). Therefore, IS security enhancing efforts must always consider additional IS security strategies, such the use of antiviruses on every computer, to considerably mitigate the risks.   

Critical Evaluation of Firewalls used in the Industry Today

Generally, the firewalls must incorporate some network systems like the virtual private network that allows the managers of software’s to be in a position to enjoy the attractive solutions (Singletary & Singletary, 2004). The set of computers given allow some form of connectivity that makes it possible for people to access information with the authority of the administrator (Griffin, 2007). This form of connectivity is very useful in the interconnection sites that are useful in the sharing of important information among different parties (Chapman et al., 1995). Distributed firewalls are used in this case (Cohen, 2011). Their configuration involves the use of standalone devices that are able to have other host-based firewalls that are based on the common administrative control (Sharif, & Abdullah, 2018).

Card (2017) argues that there is the configuration of the host resident firewalls by the general administrators who have the custody of the whole software. The servers are controlled from the main workstations that are set to perform the normal daily functions of the organization in question (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). They are able to provide information that makes the system to prevent any attack from external invasion by having very organized protection (Mell & Grance, 2014).

Firewalls are so necessary for different avenues ranging from government organizations, corporations, and other organizations that have embraced the evolution of technology within the course of time (Hu et al., 2015). They have been embraced due to the different reasons that make it very good as a technological advancement (Dorigo& Stützle, 2019). It makes an avenue for a centralized data processing system, something that is much needed in today’s digital world (Zhao, 2016). Many terminals can be directly be connected to this system hence improving the functionality (Byabagye, 2011).

The internet connection has stopped being an option in organizations. Local area networks have been advanced in many organizations to allow as many departments as possible to access connectivity (Sharif & Abdullah, 2018). This has eased connectivity hence making the use of firewalls to be so instrumental in the implementation of the majority of strategies of the organizations (Sharif, & Abdullah, 2018). Many enterprises are able to access the information they need from each other through the interconnection of their software. However, this needs to be done with much care (Cheswick et al., 2003).


Technology has been embraced in many organisations in form of firewall. In this regard, this paper presents a discussion of the modern day use of firewall for data security. The paper includes the introduction that sheds more light on what firewalls are and their uses. It also includes a vivid explanation on the need to have firewalls in any organization in question. The purpose of the firewalls in firms is put into context explaining the effects on organizations due to lack of firewalls. This was followed by a thorough explanation of the types of firewalls that are used in different organizations as well as the benefits that accrue to an organisation for using the firewall. The paper also highlights issues related to cybercrime and data security and includes a detailed critical evaluation of the use of firewalls in modern day organisations.


All the efforts made by the information technology experts have been for the betterment of the data and the information systems. This is necessary because of the current need to promote data security in industries with a view of making things work with the order. Firewalls have been the major inventions that have cleared the doubt and fear that makes organizations have peace when dealing with their data.


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Dreams Possess Meaning

Dreams Possess Meaning

Dreams Possess Meaning

                        In essence, dreams most often seem meaningless, however, with a deeper analysis they can establish links to the physical world of dreamer, hence enhancing the ability to establish their purpose. Sigmund Freud provides one of the most fundamental approaches to derive meaning from analyzing the relationships between the physical and the dream world, hence identifying their meaning. Alternative interpretations of dreams are related to Freud’s explanation, but are not adequately specific or complete to offer any assistance to a victim of nightmares. For instance, King in (1981, Para. 7) Why we crave horror movies suggests that bad dreams are a means to exercise suppressed negative, but normal emotions, such as fear, that are not regularly expressed, because they do not conform to human expectations. Fear may be a normal emotion, but explaining to a psychologically disturbed person that nightmares are normal may not offer much help, because they cannot understand the manner in which to handle situation to eliminate or reduce the psychological torture. Similarly, suggesting that nightmares are normal mental processes of handling fear, as Angier, (1981, Para. 23), in the Dreamscape of Nightmares, Clues to Why We Dream at All, argues, cannot suffice to solve a psychological condition, because patients are more interested in a solution rather than a description. Therefore, as suggested by Sigmund Freud, the best therapist out of the considered three, such patients will understand that bad dreams are normal, but will require specific guidelines that are in consonance with their physical life and with defined roles that they should play.

In a peculiar manner, dreams pickup from reality to finish the journey that was cut by some circumstances but shade the picture, hence giving experience that was missed in the physical world. Freud (1921, p. 2) notes that “the reading of dreams consists in replacing the events of the dream, so far as remembered, by other events.” The psychical processes involved produce an illusionary episode with highly distorted elements, such as characters or latent content, which seem highly abstract and detached from reality, such that deriving a meaning requires in depth thoughts to form manifest content, by appropriately either combining or replacing abstract components with specific real objects. In consciousness, more than often, people reject dreams without a thought, hence pushing them aside to continue with day to day activities instead of focusing on their meaning (Freud, 1921, p. 3). Nonetheless, dreams have a connection to the physical world from which they help the dreamer to proceed enjoying the experience of unmet goals or avoided phenomena in reality. According to Freud, people have a wide range of desires in life with some being fulfilled while others are never met, but they come true in the world of dreams. Freud asserts that while the latency of the content maybe too much to make any sense to the dreamer; a free flowing logical sequence from the physical to the dream world can be established using intensive analyses. Therefore, by pursuing the connections from the reality to the dream, the dreamer can identify the source, as well as the meaning, hence immensely helping in addressing the impacts of the dream, which include psychological disorders.  

            A wide range of unconcluded phenomena including emotions, such as desire and fear can be articulated in the dream to complete the experience of the dreamer. For instance, human beings have a natural tendency to pursue their fears, hence identify the risks involved in the source of the fear. In addition, human beings have a desire to avoid mistakes and failure; hence a big percentage of life is used trying to attain perfection. Fear is an important emotion, because it enhances observation of caution, hence evade errors or failure. However, being fearful is considered unpleasant and a weakness hence should be avoided or not be expressed. In the case of nightmares, the victim might have been or may be currently pursuing an intense mission of self-fulfillment but under unfavorable circumstances, while denying the reality that everything is risky and failure is always an option, hence suppressing the fear of failing to focus on the goal (King, 1921, Para. 4). In this regard, the fear that they could not or are refusing to face in reality is depicted in latent content of the dream to complete the experience. Because the victim cannot face the fear in reality, even in the dream the content is highly intensive, hence arousing them to later term it a nightmare. The frightening experience maybe punishing to the victim, but it is a fulfillment of the emotion of the fear avoided, while the awakening fulfils the victims desire not pursue the fears to conclusion. Therefore, the patient must analyze the dream to address the specific fear causing the nightmare to be cured.

            As King suggest, it is true that human beings have character traits that despite being suppressed by civilization cannot fade away, but they cannot sufficiently explain concept of nightmares without a logical connection from the physical life to the dream experiences. In many occasions, patients seek help to identify the manner in which they can get involved in solving their problem. However, (King 1981, Para. 10) notes that “If we share a brotherhood of man, then we also share an insanity of man,” hence suggesting that it is normal to have weird characteristics such as nightmare. Whether true or not, telling the victim that it is normal to have nightmares emanate from suppressed emotions cannot be of any help, because they require a call to action with clear logical guidelines towards a defined outcome, as well as specific starting areas in their physical life. Furthermore, King (1981, Para. 7) argues “Our emotions and our fears form their own body, and we recognize that it demands its own exercise to maintain proper muscle tone.” In this regard, King suggests that emotional body flexes its muscles in dreams; especially including feelings that have been immensely suppressed by civilization. Nevertheless, such an argument is contradictory, because even children who adequately portray a sense of fear suffer from nightmares on more occasions than adults who rarely express it. Therefore, while it is contradiction, psychological patients cannot as well establish the manner in which the King’s interpretation, which fails to offer any participative role, can help them in addressing their issues.

            The understanding that dreams are a process to relieve the emotion of fear, while nightmares represent the failure of the mechanism may be true, but insufficient to assist a person troubled by bad dreams. Angier (1981, Para. 13) indicates that “By this scenario, nightmares, in allowing you to escape prematurely, represent a failure of the “fear extinction” system”.  Nevertheless, after understanding that conclusive bad dreams, however, much frightening helps in fear distinction, the victims cannot identify which actions to adopt to ensure their horrible experiences run to conclusion rather than awakening them (Angier, 1981, Para. 23). Angier’s argument by failing to suggest the manner in which nightmare victims can influence dreams in physical world makes her suggestion highly inadequate to be a solution to psychological issues. The concept of fear extinction is in consonance with Freud’s understanding that dreams seek to complete an unmet desire in reality, which maybe be the failure to address certain fears, because of other more compelling interests. Therefore, patients can understand that failure to address personal fears can lead to bad dreams, as well as nightmare to complete the experience, but still cannot influence the situation to address their problems.   

            Freud’s interpretation of dreams is a combination, an improvement and an extension of the King and Angier’s incomplete and at some instances contradicting explanations about the same. Dreams may be abstract, strange and even horrific, but they are linked to the physical world in a manner that enhances the dreamer to experience unmet desires in the real world. Identifying the connections, Freud suggests, is highly essential in understanding the source and the meaning of dreams. For instance, in a case of nightmares, it can be deduced that the victim maybe having a compelling desire not to confront his/her fears, hence avoiding the frightening emotional experience. In this regard, the patient is likely to undergo a series of highly horrible dream to experience or express the evaded emotion of fear in physical life, as King suggests. The dream may become so horrible to awake the dreamer; hence achieving the victim’s desire not to address his/her fears or as suggested by Angier to extinct the fearful emotion. In this regard, psychological patients must identify the most fearful elements or phenomena in their lives, as well as means to confront them to avoid nightmares. In his explanation of dreams, Freud extends the explanations by Angier and Kings, by offering a means to identify the elements of real world that lead to the nightmare by establishing logical connections between the physical and the dream dimensions. Therefore, Freud is the best therapist to help in bad dream cases, because his explanation enhances the patient to easily locate the source of the nightmares, as well as largely incorporates Angier and King’s understandings about the psychological disorder. 


Angier, N. (2007). In the Dreamscape of Nightmares, Clues to Why We Dream at All. Retrieved from

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King, S. (1981). Why we crave horror movies. Retrieved from–EXAMPLE_King_HorrorMovies.doc

Biomimicry possesses

Biomimicry possesses



Biomimicry possesses tremendous potential to improve the performance of structures and buildings in their entire lifecycle. Nevertheless, a myriad of challenges is limiting its implementation in the construction industry. A survey conducted on a sample of some of the most experienced architects in the industry revealed that lack of relevant knowledge as one of the most major challenges that are hindering the deployment of biomimetic techniques and the design of structures. In particular, architects face significant issues, while using biomimetic resources and tools, which are yet to be organized into defined and considerably rely on semantic information. Therefore, it is recommended that architectural programs should be revised to incorporate a substantial level of biological information, hence ensure that designers can use biomimetic tools and resources in the future. Moreover, biomimicry-related training should be emphasized to ensure that existing architects can use biomimetic techniques in their design. 

Table of Contents

1.    Introduction. 4

1.1.     Benefits of Biomimicry. 5

1.2.     Research Aim and objectives. 7

2.    Problem Statement 7

3.    Research Methodology. 8

3.1.     Research method. 8

3.2.     Sampling. 8

3.3.     Data Collection and Analysis. 9

4.    Analysis and Discussion. 9

5.    Conclusion. 11

References. 12


1.      Introduction

While designers do not have any shortage of biomimetic tools to select from, these tools are yet to be organized into full biomimicry sets, which can significantly enhance throughout the process of product design. In most cases, biomimetic tools assist designers in generating concepts, as well as mapping them from biometrics to probable applications. Some organizations, such as Biomimicry Oregon, a Portland-based regional network, which focuses on nature-inspired techniques of managing stormwater, have done remarkable research work in biomimicry. For instance, Bio-mimicry Institute has already published a seminal research report, which outlines numerous nature-oriented strategies of managing stormwater in Portland. The report outlines several approaches of managing stormwater at Willamette valley, especially focusing on organisms and systems to establish mechanisms in which nature gathers, stores, transports and reduces the force effects water. Furthermore, the institute organized a conference, including 45 stormwater researchers, designers, entrepreneurs and policymakers to share some of the techniques that are used by local organisms in rainwater management. The workshop ideated 30 new mechanisms of managing stormwater, especially based on nature lessons as articulated in the Biomimicry Institute’s report (Fayemi, Maranzana, Aoussat, A. and Bersano 2014). Nevertheless, despite the massive research efforts, biomimetic tools provide considerably reduced little practical advice, especially on how to translate biomimicry ideologies into prototypes that can be manufactured. Therefore, although previous research indicates that biomimicry has a tremendous potential to improve natural resource management, there is considerably reduced deployment of relevant strategies, especially in the construction sector.

1.1.            Benefits of Biomimicry

The construction industry is one of the most essential sectors that play considerably determine the quality of life of a population, as well as meets the critical society demands. Furthermore, investments in the construction industry play a key strategic role in many countries’ national development and economic growth strategy. Passino (2005) notes that because it provides the necessary infrastructure, hence facilitates development in urban centers, the construction industry is tightly connected to urbanization. In this regard, any techniques and technologies that improve the construction industry are significantly relevant to urbanization and economic growth in a specific country. However, while biomimicry possesses tremendous potential to improve the construction industry, it has received considerably reduced attention from construction designers and engineers. Previous research indicates that one of the construction industry’s characteristics is the consumption of huge amounts of energy. In particular, massive energy is consumed in the entire lifecycle of structures, including the process of manufacturing building materials, transportation of materials from the manufacturer to the construction site, development of structure or building, operation of structure or building and demolishing and recycling part of a structure or building. In the UK, buildings are responsible for around 50% and the construction stage utilizes an additional 5-10% of energy consumption in the country. Therefore, there is a considerably urgent need to establish effective and efficient means that can be used to enhance the construction sector, especially by reducing its massive consumption of energy.

Previous studies have identified that nature depicts effective, efficient, functional, eco-friendly and aesthetically gratifying aspects, especially through its designs and solution. Without beat, heat, and treat, natural organisms manufacture ecosystems, which run on sunlight and feedback, hence rather than creating waste, they develop opportunities. Through the research and development of nature, which has been perfected in a period spanning almost 4 billion years evolution, humanity has identified sustainable attributes, hence methodologies and techniques that can be used to enhance a wide range of processes, including the construction of new structures. In this regard, architects, designers, innovators and engineers have started consulting the natural superb forms, policies and processes to address the sustainability challenges in the world. Therefore, biomimicry, one of the latest disciplines in the construction sector, which focuses on the natural paradigm and emulates their processes, forms, strategies and systems to address sustainability issues for humanity, has emerged in the recent past.

1.2.            Research Aim and objectives

The primary aim of this research is to identify specific reasons that are hindering the adoption of biomimetic techniques in the construction sector, especially the design of structures. In particular, this paper will focus on the following objectives:

  1. Identify the primary drawbacks of incorporating the conventional building techniques in the design phase of construction projects.
  2. Establish the actual benefits of incorporating biomimetic techniques in the design of structures. 
  3. Identify the primary reasons that are hindering the adoption of biomimetic techniques in construction design.
  4. Establish effective and efficient techniques that can be used to enhance the implementation of biomimetic techniques in the design of structures or buildings.

2.      Problem Statement

While recent research indicates that biomimicry has considerable potential to improve operations in the construction industry, there is significantly reduced adoption of biomimetic strategies in design and development structures or buildings. Currently, research has identified and formulated significant biomimetic techniques that can be used to improve the performance of structures in their entire lifecycle, especially from development to demolition. Because the design phase is significantly critical in the development and operation of structures or buildings, it is necessary to consider biomimetic techniques, which have tremendous potential to improve their performance (Al-Obaidi, Ismail, Hussein and Rahman 2017). Nevertheless, it is only a few designers who incorporate biomimetic techniques in their design work. Therefore, this study focuses on identifying the key factors that hinder the adoption of biomimetic strategies in the construction sector.

3.      Research Methodology

3.1.            Research method

A qualitative study approach was used to identify the reasons that make designers fail to incorporate biomimetic techniques in the design and implementation of construction projects. A qualitative technique of research was preferred in this study because of its ability to provide a detailed perception of the reason people behave in a particular manner, as well as provide adequate insights regarding their perception of their behavior.

3.2.            Sampling

A random sampling technique was used to identify an appropriate sample of designers in the construction industry. In a particular, A Sample of 30 architects with at least 15 years of experience in architectural design was selected from public and private architectural design organizations. Furthermore, a 90% guaranteed response rate was expected to ensure the achievement of a sufficiently reliable sample that could enhance the completeness of the targeted primary data. Nevertheless, Creswell and Clark (2011) indicate that although a random sampling technique introduces an obvious issue of proper representation, especially for huge populations, it addresses the systematic biasedness issue. Specifically, the issue of systematic bias was eliminated by offering all eligible participants an equal opportunity to participate in the study, hence enabling the selection of an unbiased representative sample of the study. 

3.3.            Data Collection and Analysis

Semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires were utilized to gather primary data from a sample of considerably experienced architects. Qualitative data, especially lengthy interview statements were analyzed using by categorizing it into evident themes or sets from which inferences were made. In particular, the initial phase of analysis involved familiarizing with the gathered data, which involved reading the interview statements and the questionnaire statements several times to familiarize with the responses, hence identify fundamental patterns or observations. After the phase of familiarizing with the gathered data, it was considered necessary to revisit the study objectives, hence establish the questions which could be answered with the gathered data. Furthermore, the analysis of the gathered data involved the development of a paradigm, which is also referred to as indexing or coding, especially by establishing broad concepts, ideas, behaviors and phrases and assigning them specific codes. After the coding phase, the study focused on the identification of themes, especially by establishing themes from common responses, as well as patterns or data that could answer the research questions and finding further research areas.

4.      Analysis and Discussion

The stud confirmed that many designers do not incorporate biomimetic techniques during the design of construction projects. Out of the 30 interviewed designers, only 5 indicated that they consider biomimetic issues during the design phase of construction projects. In particular, many architects cited the lack of adequate and practical information regarding the practicality of biomimetic methods in the development of structures. Two-thirds of the interviewed respondents indicated that the biomimicry knowledge that they possess is largely theoretical rather than practical. Although not directly, many architects cited lack of relevant knowledge and skills, especially to facilitate substantial collaboration between the domains of architecture and biology, as one of the primary challenges that hinder their ability to incorporate biomimicry in their design and deployment of construction projects. Moreover, 29 respondents indicated that they experience significant challenges while using existing resources and tools, which largely depend on semantic methods of enhancing the translation of knowledge and information between design and biology. More than half of the study participants noted that collaboration and evaluation issues are significantly prevalent in design practice and can be addressed through prototyping. Nevertheless, all the study participants indicated that biomimicry can significantly improve the performance of structures throughout their entire lifecycle. In particular, respondents noted that the adoption of biomimicry in the design, especially by focusing on the use of green energy can significantly enhance the performance of structures (Badarnah 2017). Therefore, this research suggests that apart from identifying biomimetic techniques that can be used to enhance construction projects, it is necessary to focus on prototyping to acquire practical knowledge about the performance of biomimicry-oriented projects.

Apart from prototyping, the study revealed that it is necessary to redesign training programs, especially by introducing biology-related subjects to enhance the ability of architects and engineers to use biomimetic tools, as well as incorporate biomimicry in the design and development of construction projects. Because many architects do not possess adequate biology-related knowledge, they can barely use biomimetic tools, hence cannot incorporate adopt biomimicry-oriented methods in their design. Nevertheless, previous studies have established that designers and engineers with a significantly high level of knowledge in biological subjects experience reduced challenges while utilizing nature-oriented tools and resources. For instance, many professionals who adopt the use of self-healing concrete have expressed tremendous interest in biological subjects. Thus, apart from prototyping, it is necessary to introduce biological subjects in architecture both at the college and the professional level.

5.      Conclusion

While biomimicry can significantly enhance the performance of structures and buildings, there is a wide range of challenges that are hindering the adoption of biomimetic techniques in the construction industry. In particular, despite there being a substantial amount of research on how biomimetic techniques can be used to enhance the performance of structures, most of the research is highly theoretical hence cannot be easily applied in the design phase of construction. Moreover, many architects possess significantly reduced biological information, hence cannot use the existing tools and resources. In this regard, while biomimicry has a massive potential to enhance the construction process, many designers are still using conventional techniques, which yield considerably inefficient structures. For instance, the failure to incorporate modern technologies in the design and development of buildings in the UK has resulted in costly structures, which account for about 50% of energy consumption in the country. Nevertheless, many architects largely attribute their failure to use effective and efficient methods to lack of adequate knowledge. Specifically, inadequate biological information and skills significantly hinder the ability of designers to use biomimetic tools and resources. Furthermore, many of the existing tools depend on semantic knowledge to translate knowledge between biology and design. Without a substantial level of biological knowledge, architects cannot use these tools in the design phase. For this reason, most of the current buildings are developed using conventional techniques that are highly inefficient, especially because the design is one of the most critical stages of construction project development. Thus, it is recommended the training of architects’ training should include biological subjects to ensure that designers use both biological tools and resources. In particular, training should be emphasized both at the college and at the professional level. At the college level, architecture programs should include biological subjects to ensure that graduates possess fundamental information that can be used to implement new technologies in their design. In addition, practicing designers should be trained on how to use biomimetic tools and resources to ensure that they have the necessary capability to incorporate biomimicry in the design of structures or buildings. Because most of the existing knowledge is theoretical, it is necessary to emphasize the prototyping of biomimetic solutions to ensure that they can be applied in the construction industry. With prototyping, designers can view the actual performance of the proposed solutions. While they have the necessary knowledge and skills and can perceive the actual performance of solutions, designers will be able to incorporate biomimicry in design. Therefore, prototyping and training are some of the solutions that may increase the adoption of biomimetic resources and techniques in design.


Al-Obaidi, K.M., Ismail, M.A., Hussein, H. and Rahman, A.M.A 2017, Biomimetic building skins: An adaptive approach, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews79, pp.1472-1491.

Badarnah, L 2017, Form follows environment: biomimetic approaches to building envelope design for environmental adaptation, Buildings7(2), p.40.

Creswell, J.W., Klassen, A.C., Plano Clark, V.L. and Smith, K.C 2011, Best practices for mixed methods research in the health sciences, Bethesda (Maryland): National Institutes of Health2013, pp.541-545.

Fayemi, P.E., Maranzana, N., Aoussat, A. and Bersano, G 2014, Bio-inspired design characterisation and its links with problem solving tools, In DS 77: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2014 13th International Design Conference (pp. 173-182).

Passino, K.M 2005, Biomimicry for optimization, control, and automation, Springer Science & Business Media.