Firewall technology

Firewall technology

The global state of the world has made technology to be almost a basic need in the way things are done. The current advancement in technology has led to many innovative ways of doing things (Bheemavarapu et al., 2018). The automation of many machines has really made the human manual labor to be replaced by the programmed machines. This has really questioned the power of the mind of man in doing some of the tasks that the machines can do. The fact that technological advancement is changing the world makes it possible to embrace what comes (Schulze, 2018, June). The move has OI been very instrumental in changing the view of the effectiveness of performance of duties. This is because the machines use automated energy that is controlled by the human effort. The overall impact is that they improved work without fatigue (Kumar et al., 2018).

Purpose of Firewall

This modern advancement has been very instrumental in making the safety of both the operating hardware and software to be sorted (Saadawi, 2018). With this in place, there has been a good way ensuring that the systems are guarded for efficient performance. The interaction between private internet and internet has made it possible to have good control policies that guarantee much security (Dzinkowski, 2018). With the combination of the hardware and the software, the risk of a security breach is made possible because the systems are connected (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). The two software form a protective wall that makes there to be a divergence between the corporate network and the outside world.

The data security is made in a way that makes organizations to keep its business or corporate information as private and confidential (Cox et al., 2018). The way this is done is by putting a computerized system in place to provide security to all the information that a specific organization has. Recent developments in computer science have made social online platforms to be a tricky sector that needs to be handled with much care (Caceres, 2017). Some of the advancements have been so positive making the field to be simplified in the execution of the duties (Hamlett, 2014). This has made people to embrace the field since it is a digital program that simplifies work and saves people from the manual tasks (Zhao, 2016). On the other hand, the negative impacts have been escalating in considerable frequency.

Cybercrime has been the talk of the day in the international software grounds. Some suppliers of some software’s have been doing some underground work through some frameworks in the programming models that make use of webs that are unacceptably dark (Kumar, 2015). This makes them crop in the programmed systems and perform all the necessary activities required to do cyber-attacks (Christiana & Cooper, 2018). For instance, in May 2015, some software experts made use of “tox”, which is a construction kit that uses ransomware. This was one of the ways that the coordinate spreading of the return of the transactions of the cybercrimes was facilitated (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). This remains one of the disadvantages of having open software that is subjected to too much greater risks.

The access of the secure software by the cybercriminals has been a challenge in putting trust on the data security (Krit & Haimoud, 2017 May). A lot of crucial information is kept in the security systems in the organization’s software, which demands a guarantee that the information will not be risked to be in the hands of the wrong people (Sharif, & Abdullah, 2018). Cybercrimes are increasing at an alarming rate in the contemporary world hence compromising the trust that people have on software systems in the long-run.

The advancement in technology has made different organizations to adopt different firewalls that are functional in society (Mathur & Nishchal, 2010, October). This has eased the functioning role of many management authorities because their roles are made simpler. They are responsible for ensuring that the information that concerns the company is maintained within the required boundaries (Eykholt & Caceres, 2017). There is a need for good investment in the systems so that the data is secured for the benefit of the organizations. The workers in any organization have a responsibility of embracing the organization’s goals by keeping the information to themselves if need be (Zhao, 2016).

Types of Firewall Technologies

Software Firewalls. Firewalls are of different types based on the function that it performs best. Packet filtering firewall applies a set of rules that make use of the incoming and outgoing IP address which then discards the part after use (Smyth, 2005). Depending on the type of firewall, the system can be made in such a way that allows configuration of the filter packets in many directions. This applies to and from the internal networks. It has the source IP address which makes the IP work. The destination IP dress enables the system to reach all corners of operation. The IP protocol field is responsible for transporting the protocol to the needed destination (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). The interface of the firewall makes it possible to interconnectivity to happen in the three ports.

This type of firewall is so flexible in the way it is used, because it enables the people working with the system to feel its simplicity in the long run (Naik et al., 2018). This happens because they do not examine the upper layer that employs the data vulnerability. However, one of the limitations of this type of firewall is that it has limited information in the database. This makes it have limited uses mainly in small organizations. It also has a small number of variable information that makes it unfit for configurations in most of the security systems (Sharif, & Abdullah, 2018). The configuration of such systems does not guarantee much reliability in matters of data security.

Circuit-level gateway is another form of firewall used in modern industries as a data security mechanism. It is important to note that the application level in the system enables it to have a stand-alone functional system that improves its efficiency. It does not permit an end to end connection in its use. This makes it unique because it makes use of some system update mechanism that is useful in almost all types of industries (Zhao, 2016). The multipurpose use is one of the convenient characteristics that make it the choice of many organizations that need such systems.

The firewall is able to be used typically, which indicates that the administrator is able to allow it to be to be used by a different user, hence making the user convenient. The client-server applications are made possible through the use of some system protocols that increase the security of the system (Fernandez et al., 2014). The implication of this is the establishment of a connection that is object reachable. This makes it easy for the operating system to have an established way of making information systems to work efficiently (Zhao, 2016). It can either establish the appropriate connection or deny in the long-run.

Application gateway firewall is another device that acts as a relay to the application traffic system by making use of the gateway as a remote host for accessibility (Dhayapule et al., 2018). The user does this by providing a valid authentication by use of proxies that are necessary for information flow (Morgan, 2016). The authority of this function is made possible through the installation of the right proxies that are connected through the two ends. The specific codes are made by the specific applications that make the firewalls to be able to perform the required functions (Sun, 2015). There is a set of support that controls all the activities from the central point hence making the operations to be performed with much ease (Barnes et al., 2009).

A personal firewall is another type that helps in controlling the traffic network between the personal computer and the workstation that one can be having (Peisert et al., 2018). The enterprise network or the internet is maintained on the other side that makes the interconnection possible. Most of these fireworks are less complex and therefore they can be used by people even in their homes because of their portability (Knight, 2005). They have the primary role of denying the unauthorized access to some areas by people who may have malicious plans concerning the access of the systems (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). They also monitor the outgoing activities to block other malware that may be present in the system (Ingrand & Ghallab, 2017). However, most of the software firewalls discussed above cannot single handedly offer adequate protection, hence the vulnerability of malicious attacks is still significant even with the use of the security mechanisms. Therefore, to offer considerably protection, organization must explore other methods of boosting information system (IS) security to significantly reduce the vulnerability of ISs.

Hardware Firewalls. There exist numerous hardware firewalls, which can boost IS protection from malicious software attacks. Most of the existing hardware firewalls use a similar basic principle to protect internet users from cyber-attacks. A router, which possesses natural firewall-like characteristics, is one of the many hardware firewalls. In a router-computer network, the router assigns a unique address to every computer, while it retains a single IP (Internet Protocol) address to direct traffic. In this regard, targeting a particular computer behind a router, becomes much more difficult than in one-on-one direct connections. Although all routers possess firewall properties, more expensive categories, especially from the same manufacturers as the basic ones, have particular characteristics to attacks from malicious users. Sophisticated hardware firewalls utilize the Stateful Pack Inspection (SPI) technique, which involves screening particular content of traffic in a network to establish any code that can potentially cause harm, while basic routers only bar specific addresses and computer ports. Thus, a combination of sophisticated (to scan the content of a network traffic to identify malicious software) and basic (block the harmful code source IP addresses and computers ports) hardware firewalls can immensely improve IS security in an organization without significantly increasing the cost of computer network implementation.

Like their software counterparts, hardware firewalls cannot in isolation offer, sufficient IS security in modern computer networks. According to Varadhan and Gomes (2015), although routers protect specific computers from attacks, they more easily spread malware across a network if one or more computers connected to them acquires a malware, such as a virus maybe from internet downloads compared to when in separate connections. Easy spread of malware across a network is a huge risk, because a single user can easily compromise the functionality of the entire IS in an organization, hence immensely increasing the cost of recovery and business continuity mechanisms. Therefore, hardware firewalls require information system security reinforcement mechanisms to ensure significant risk mitigation and reduced cost of recovery from attacks.

A Combination of Software and Hardware Firewalls. Both hardware and software firewalls possess inherent drawbacks, hence cannot offer significant IS security in isolation, but their combination can immensely boost information security outcome. Hardware firewalls can immensely increase the cost of operation recovery from malicious attacks, because of their inherent drawback of introducing a significant high level attack vulnerability. However, the SPI capability in hardware firewall is highly essential in detecting specific malware and block their source IP address or computer ports from accessing the network, hence completely reducing the threat of attack. On the other hand, software firewalls mostly offer a universal blockade for a wide range of threat categories without any form of specification. Threats that do not fall in the range of software firewall protection can easily surpass it, hence end-up compromising IS security. Furthermore, too much use of software firewalls can even block non-threating traffic, hence immensely reduce the network effectiveness. In this regard, introducing a level of hardware firewalls to specific threats that surpass the software firewalls, as well as reduce the chances of barring essential traffic, by reducing the number of universal blockades, is essential in modern computer networks that require high level IS security protection and functionality. Nevertheless, although the combination of software hardware firewalls can offer considerable protection, there still exists an avalanche of IS threats, which a released in the modern market at a very high rate (Kaur, Kaur & Gupta, 2016). Therefore, IS security enhancing efforts must always consider additional IS security strategies, such the use of antiviruses on every computer, to considerably mitigate the risks.   

Critical Evaluation of Firewalls used in the Industry Today

Generally, the firewalls must incorporate some network systems like the virtual private network that allows the managers of software’s to be in a position to enjoy the attractive solutions (Singletary & Singletary, 2004). The set of computers given allow some form of connectivity that makes it possible for people to access information with the authority of the administrator (Griffin, 2007). This form of connectivity is very useful in the interconnection sites that are useful in the sharing of important information among different parties (Chapman et al., 1995). Distributed firewalls are used in this case (Cohen, 2011). Their configuration involves the use of standalone devices that are able to have other host-based firewalls that are based on the common administrative control (Sharif, & Abdullah, 2018).

Card (2017) argues that there is the configuration of the host resident firewalls by the general administrators who have the custody of the whole software. The servers are controlled from the main workstations that are set to perform the normal daily functions of the organization in question (Yan, Jian-W& Lin, 2015). They are able to provide information that makes the system to prevent any attack from external invasion by having very organized protection (Mell & Grance, 2014).

Firewalls are so necessary for different avenues ranging from government organizations, corporations, and other organizations that have embraced the evolution of technology within the course of time (Hu et al., 2015). They have been embraced due to the different reasons that make it very good as a technological advancement (Dorigo& Stützle, 2019). It makes an avenue for a centralized data processing system, something that is much needed in today’s digital world (Zhao, 2016). Many terminals can be directly be connected to this system hence improving the functionality (Byabagye, 2011).

The internet connection has stopped being an option in organizations. Local area networks have been advanced in many organizations to allow as many departments as possible to access connectivity (Sharif & Abdullah, 2018). This has eased connectivity hence making the use of firewalls to be so instrumental in the implementation of the majority of strategies of the organizations (Sharif, & Abdullah, 2018). Many enterprises are able to access the information they need from each other through the interconnection of their software. However, this needs to be done with much care (Cheswick et al., 2003).


Technology has been embraced in many organisations in form of firewall. In this regard, this paper presents a discussion of the modern day use of firewall for data security. The paper includes the introduction that sheds more light on what firewalls are and their uses. It also includes a vivid explanation on the need to have firewalls in any organization in question. The purpose of the firewalls in firms is put into context explaining the effects on organizations due to lack of firewalls. This was followed by a thorough explanation of the types of firewalls that are used in different organizations as well as the benefits that accrue to an organisation for using the firewall. The paper also highlights issues related to cybercrime and data security and includes a detailed critical evaluation of the use of firewalls in modern day organisations.


All the efforts made by the information technology experts have been for the betterment of the data and the information systems. This is necessary because of the current need to promote data security in industries with a view of making things work with the order. Firewalls have been the major inventions that have cleared the doubt and fear that makes organizations have peace when dealing with their data.


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Elements of Cybersecurity Policy

Elements of Cybersecurity Policy

Elements of Cybersecurity Policy

Cybercriminals utilize spam emails to harvest essential data from unsuspecting information system users. While technical measures are regarded as the primary method of addressing spam, they must be supplemented using a policy strategy. According to Marshal (2018), social engineering techniques, such as phishing deceive information system users into revealing their personal and financial information, including secret access details and bank account and credit card numbers. Identity theft may be executed using different forms, including personal email, and standard mail. Because spam emails target human vulnerabilities, it is extremely difficult to completely stop them from using technical solutions. Thus, supplementary policy-related solutions are required to significantly reduce the risk posed by spam emails.

Current phishing statistics indicate that spam is one of the most reliable attack vectors. In 2017, 66% of all malware was introduced through malicious email attachments. In the same year, 43% of all security breaches involved a social tactic. Even highly informed people have been victims of attacks conducted using spam emails. In 2016, the Democratic Party candidate Hillary Clinton’s campaign chairman John Podesta was a victim of a spear-phishing attack. Hackers tricked Podesta to provide his email credentials, which were then used to steal about 50, 000 emails from his account (Marshal, 2018). In this regard, spam emails can be used to execute an attack targeting a wide range of victims. Thus, without an elaborate policy to minimize human vulnerability, spam emails will still be significant threat information and information system security.

Use of anti-spam legislation is one of the techniques that can be used to reduce the threat opposed by spam emails. The two major categories of anti-spam legislation are opt-out and opt-in. In the US, senders are free to send spams provided the recipient stays in. On the other hand, European countries implement a slightly different version of opt-out, which allows senders to send spam so long as the recipient has provided an in advance consent (Ju, Cho, Lee & Ahn, 2017). The opt-out technique allows spammers to send mails until the recipients reject further emails. While implementing this technique, unsolicited emails can significantly increase for a large number of recipients. Nevertheless, the approach is less costly for consumers, because obtaining recipient permissions can be time consuming and expensive. Because of being spammer friendly, the opt-out approach receives tremendous support from direct marketers and spammers.

Supposing that the proprietary rule is used to preserve the right send emails, the opt-in method demands marketers to seek and acquire prior consent from the email recipient before sending a message. The opt-in approach is further divided into two categories, which are confirmed and unconfirmed techniques. Confirmed opt-in, which is also referred to as the ‘double opt-in,’ is a technique which requires the senders to verify the consent from recipients to ensure that permission is appropriately obtained.  The spammer sends a separate confirmation message to identify that the recipient accepts to receive spam mails. In this regard, the confirmation technique prevents malicious spammers from acquiring a high number of email addresses. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the collateral damage, which may occur when other users acquire access to the email of their colleagues with an ulterior motive. The unconfirmed opt-in technique is similar to the confirmed approach, but it does not include the verification process.

Apart from the opt-out and the two opt-in techniques, how consent is given can significantly determine the level of the risk posed by spam emails. Explicit consent, which is also referred to as direct or express consent offers a business or an individual the right to handle private data. The sender is supposed to provide oral or written consent and keep a record of its collection. On the other hand, implicit consent, which is also referred to as the indirect of the inferred consent, is normally acquired from the recipients’ circumstances or actions.  For instance, the purchase of a product can indicate that the customer is interested in similar services or products in future (Shaykevich, 2019). Explicit and implicit sought consent can significantly minimize the spam threat, by ensuring that malicious spammers can be easily identified.


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Dreams Possess Meaning

Dreams Possess Meaning

Dreams Possess Meaning

                        In essence, dreams most often seem meaningless, however, with a deeper analysis they can establish links to the physical world of dreamer, hence enhancing the ability to establish their purpose. Sigmund Freud provides one of the most fundamental approaches to derive meaning from analyzing the relationships between the physical and the dream world, hence identifying their meaning. Alternative interpretations of dreams are related to Freud’s explanation, but are not adequately specific or complete to offer any assistance to a victim of nightmares. For instance, King in (1981, Para. 7) Why we crave horror movies suggests that bad dreams are a means to exercise suppressed negative, but normal emotions, such as fear, that are not regularly expressed, because they do not conform to human expectations. Fear may be a normal emotion, but explaining to a psychologically disturbed person that nightmares are normal may not offer much help, because they cannot understand the manner in which to handle situation to eliminate or reduce the psychological torture. Similarly, suggesting that nightmares are normal mental processes of handling fear, as Angier, (1981, Para. 23), in the Dreamscape of Nightmares, Clues to Why We Dream at All, argues, cannot suffice to solve a psychological condition, because patients are more interested in a solution rather than a description. Therefore, as suggested by Sigmund Freud, the best therapist out of the considered three, such patients will understand that bad dreams are normal, but will require specific guidelines that are in consonance with their physical life and with defined roles that they should play.

In a peculiar manner, dreams pickup from reality to finish the journey that was cut by some circumstances but shade the picture, hence giving experience that was missed in the physical world. Freud (1921, p. 2) notes that “the reading of dreams consists in replacing the events of the dream, so far as remembered, by other events.” The psychical processes involved produce an illusionary episode with highly distorted elements, such as characters or latent content, which seem highly abstract and detached from reality, such that deriving a meaning requires in depth thoughts to form manifest content, by appropriately either combining or replacing abstract components with specific real objects. In consciousness, more than often, people reject dreams without a thought, hence pushing them aside to continue with day to day activities instead of focusing on their meaning (Freud, 1921, p. 3). Nonetheless, dreams have a connection to the physical world from which they help the dreamer to proceed enjoying the experience of unmet goals or avoided phenomena in reality. According to Freud, people have a wide range of desires in life with some being fulfilled while others are never met, but they come true in the world of dreams. Freud asserts that while the latency of the content maybe too much to make any sense to the dreamer; a free flowing logical sequence from the physical to the dream world can be established using intensive analyses. Therefore, by pursuing the connections from the reality to the dream, the dreamer can identify the source, as well as the meaning, hence immensely helping in addressing the impacts of the dream, which include psychological disorders.  

            A wide range of unconcluded phenomena including emotions, such as desire and fear can be articulated in the dream to complete the experience of the dreamer. For instance, human beings have a natural tendency to pursue their fears, hence identify the risks involved in the source of the fear. In addition, human beings have a desire to avoid mistakes and failure; hence a big percentage of life is used trying to attain perfection. Fear is an important emotion, because it enhances observation of caution, hence evade errors or failure. However, being fearful is considered unpleasant and a weakness hence should be avoided or not be expressed. In the case of nightmares, the victim might have been or may be currently pursuing an intense mission of self-fulfillment but under unfavorable circumstances, while denying the reality that everything is risky and failure is always an option, hence suppressing the fear of failing to focus on the goal (King, 1921, Para. 4). In this regard, the fear that they could not or are refusing to face in reality is depicted in latent content of the dream to complete the experience. Because the victim cannot face the fear in reality, even in the dream the content is highly intensive, hence arousing them to later term it a nightmare. The frightening experience maybe punishing to the victim, but it is a fulfillment of the emotion of the fear avoided, while the awakening fulfils the victims desire not pursue the fears to conclusion. Therefore, the patient must analyze the dream to address the specific fear causing the nightmare to be cured.

            As King suggest, it is true that human beings have character traits that despite being suppressed by civilization cannot fade away, but they cannot sufficiently explain concept of nightmares without a logical connection from the physical life to the dream experiences. In many occasions, patients seek help to identify the manner in which they can get involved in solving their problem. However, (King 1981, Para. 10) notes that “If we share a brotherhood of man, then we also share an insanity of man,” hence suggesting that it is normal to have weird characteristics such as nightmare. Whether true or not, telling the victim that it is normal to have nightmares emanate from suppressed emotions cannot be of any help, because they require a call to action with clear logical guidelines towards a defined outcome, as well as specific starting areas in their physical life. Furthermore, King (1981, Para. 7) argues “Our emotions and our fears form their own body, and we recognize that it demands its own exercise to maintain proper muscle tone.” In this regard, King suggests that emotional body flexes its muscles in dreams; especially including feelings that have been immensely suppressed by civilization. Nevertheless, such an argument is contradictory, because even children who adequately portray a sense of fear suffer from nightmares on more occasions than adults who rarely express it. Therefore, while it is contradiction, psychological patients cannot as well establish the manner in which the King’s interpretation, which fails to offer any participative role, can help them in addressing their issues.

            The understanding that dreams are a process to relieve the emotion of fear, while nightmares represent the failure of the mechanism may be true, but insufficient to assist a person troubled by bad dreams. Angier (1981, Para. 13) indicates that “By this scenario, nightmares, in allowing you to escape prematurely, represent a failure of the “fear extinction” system”.  Nevertheless, after understanding that conclusive bad dreams, however, much frightening helps in fear distinction, the victims cannot identify which actions to adopt to ensure their horrible experiences run to conclusion rather than awakening them (Angier, 1981, Para. 23). Angier’s argument by failing to suggest the manner in which nightmare victims can influence dreams in physical world makes her suggestion highly inadequate to be a solution to psychological issues. The concept of fear extinction is in consonance with Freud’s understanding that dreams seek to complete an unmet desire in reality, which maybe be the failure to address certain fears, because of other more compelling interests. Therefore, patients can understand that failure to address personal fears can lead to bad dreams, as well as nightmare to complete the experience, but still cannot influence the situation to address their problems.   

            Freud’s interpretation of dreams is a combination, an improvement and an extension of the King and Angier’s incomplete and at some instances contradicting explanations about the same. Dreams may be abstract, strange and even horrific, but they are linked to the physical world in a manner that enhances the dreamer to experience unmet desires in the real world. Identifying the connections, Freud suggests, is highly essential in understanding the source and the meaning of dreams. For instance, in a case of nightmares, it can be deduced that the victim maybe having a compelling desire not to confront his/her fears, hence avoiding the frightening emotional experience. In this regard, the patient is likely to undergo a series of highly horrible dream to experience or express the evaded emotion of fear in physical life, as King suggests. The dream may become so horrible to awake the dreamer; hence achieving the victim’s desire not to address his/her fears or as suggested by Angier to extinct the fearful emotion. In this regard, psychological patients must identify the most fearful elements or phenomena in their lives, as well as means to confront them to avoid nightmares. In his explanation of dreams, Freud extends the explanations by Angier and Kings, by offering a means to identify the elements of real world that lead to the nightmare by establishing logical connections between the physical and the dream dimensions. Therefore, Freud is the best therapist to help in bad dream cases, because his explanation enhances the patient to easily locate the source of the nightmares, as well as largely incorporates Angier and King’s understandings about the psychological disorder. 


Angier, N. (2007). In the Dreamscape of Nightmares, Clues to Why We Dream at All. Retrieved from

Freud, S. (1921). Dreams Have a Meaning. Dream Psychology: Psychoanalysis for Beginners. Retrieved from

King, S. (1981). Why we crave horror movies. Retrieved from–EXAMPLE_King_HorrorMovies.doc

Psychosocial and Treatment Plan Case Study

Psychosocial and Treatment Plan Case Study

Psychosocial and Treatment Plan Case Study

Dr TJ Farnum

Diagnosis: Opioid Use Disorder, severe, F11.20 (ICD-10) (Active)

Narcissistic personality disorder and Insomnia

Narcissistic Personality Disorder DSM-5 301.81 (F60.81)

Dr. T.J. Farnum was a 48-year-old single Caucasian male, who presented for treatment with feelings of discontent due to his court-mandated obligation to attend six counseling sessions. The client was to follow the directives from the court from his arrest for DUI charges. Further, the client explained that the investigating officer charged him with DUI because he could not walk in a straight line. The client experiences a chief complaint of chronic back pain that extends into the neck. Besides, the client also reported injuries from a car accident seven years ago which caused severe back pain and problems sleeping. Substantially this has made him to functions on less than three hours sleep daily.

There is no other history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric treatment or hospitalization, suicidal behaviors or substance abuse in closely related family members. The client reports no past psychiatric/psychological history. However, the client stated that he suffers from Orthostatic hypotension and severe back pain from a car accident. He reported balance issues which he attributed to back pain/sciatica. Additionally, he is also currently taking medication prescribed pain medications to manage the pain and has been hospitalized in the past to remove kidney stones.

The client has described a history of pain opioid and is currently prescribed oxycodone for pain management and Lotrel for hypertension. Similarly, he also reports pain management history with tramadol then stepped up to Flexeril. The client reports consuming caffeine regularly while denies alcohol abuse although there he admits taking two drinks per day in a social setting. In regards to drinking habits, the client indicated that he never drinks more than two drinks per day and only drink occasionally. Moreover, the client has also relied on pain medication, but in spite of this dependence, he experiences little pain relief. There are various types of substance which the client reports to use and it includes Oxycontin. Similarly, there is a pain medication used by the client beyond the prescription level in an attempt to obtain relief. Substantially this has been steady with an increase in the amount and frequency of the substance abuse as his tolerance level has increased. Notably, the client has consistently sought medical attention from several medical providers for prescription pain medication. Correspondently, this has caused the client to become dependent on the use of medication and maybe resulted in addiction.

The background of the client indicates that he is single and lives home alone with his dog. Besides, he had a traditional upbringing and is the oldest of three siblings. Born and was raised by both parents in Ozark, Al, the family is essential in his life especially the grandparents are important. This can be noticed with the fact that his grandparents lived nearby and played a role in his upbringing. The client said that his family is inferior as he started college at the age of 16. This was a normal childhood although his parents had a limited education which he explained that they hold master’s degrees. The client considered his grandfather to be “exceptional”. The client stated he looked up to his grandfather and held high regard for him. Client stated that there was no family history of abuse to include physical, sexual or substance. The client refused to answer questions about sexual orientation

The client can be described to be introvert given the fact that his social life is secluded with few friends who are always available for him whenever he needs assistance. For instance, he states that a friend recently bailed him out of jail. There was a past relationship although it was not significant enough to keep but due to his attitude of believing that people lack intelligence compared to him. There are no close family relationships in the life of the client and the hobbies he enjoys entail reading and writing. Find a reading and writing relaxing because he is sharing his knowledge with the world. the love for reading is attributed to the education level of the client.

Further, he has three doctoral degrees in psychology, clinical social work and applied statistics. As a result, his life has revolved around working in education most of his life. The client stated he has “always been academically superior”. He explained that having credentials is meaningful to him. He is currently employed with the University of Alabama. He stated he recently began a new position with the University of Alabama. Over the past five years, the client reported he has held positions with seven different places of employment. However, the main reason for quitting from past jobs is because he is not getting along with co-workers. The primary concern on this action is that he feels uncomfortable with the people around him. The believes that the co-worker often upset him and as a result it caused him to intentionally hit his car. More importantly, he also believes in working alone where he can be certain to enjoy working. The client’s socioeconomic status is upper middle class, and he states he is “satisfied with his lifestyle”. The criminal history addressed is mainly driving under the influence of alcohol. There is no affiliation to religion or even no significant cultural/ethnic practices. These conditions have forced the client to cope with stressful situations by reading and writing. The patient coping methods are adaptive/maladaptive since he believes to be excellent in all the activities.

Ruled out other diagnostic concerns and behavioral issues.

During the interview, the client was well dressed and neatly groomed. The client presented as resistant and angry to most of the questions during the interview. The client exhibited defensiveness and anger during the interview and was minimally cooperative and argumentative throughout the interview as well as often questioned the clinician level of competency. Besides, there are times when the client was uncooperative and seemed uninterested in participating in the interview. Despite these inconveniences, his rate of speech and tone seemed natural and also the thought processes were logical although he demonstrated poor insight into his situation. There was no exhibition of psychotic symptoms in his thought content. More importantly, the client denied having any obsessions, compulsions, or phobias. His memory seemed unimpaired as he also seemed to be fully oriented. The client’s intelligence was estimated to be above average but his judgment and impulse control are inadequate. Substantially this is evident from DUI and his abuse of prescription medications. He denied any suicide or homicide ideation.

The Client has chronic pain, stress relationships, legal issues, and abuses opioids. These also seem to present the client to live in a state of chronic anger and displeasure with others. There is also evidence of grandiose ideas regarding his abilities, education, and accomplishments. The client described a pattern of attaining far less sleep than would normally be needed. In spite of attempts to try to get the client to be more realistic, his grandiosity continued. Moreover, he indicates that he did not like past jobs because he doesn’t like dealing with students or faculty at work. The client described feelings of anger directed at those who discount his grandiosity. Moreover, he believes that some of the jobs were boring and did not match his level of education and also tends to be quite judgmental of others

The client frequently has eruptions of intense and inappropriate anger triggered by seemingly insignificant stressors. The client described a history of engaging in impulsive behaviors that have the potential for producing harmful consequences for himself. It is also noted that the client has very poor impulse control and coping skills. In most cases has denial regarding the negative consequences of his substance although he acknowledged drug abuse. This began after surgery and continued abuse in spite of the negative impact he felt during the time he was taking drugs. The client has continued to abuse prescription drugs despite recurring physical, legal, problems that were directly caused by substance abuse. The denial for substance abuse even though he is using them has caused many problems in his life leading to the addition of drug abuse. The incidence of addition can be determined by the confirmation on the pattern of chronic drug abuse. Similarly, the client made frequent pessimistic verbalizations about his inability to control the pain or live a normal life or be understood by others. There are minimal recognition and understanding of substance abuse and mental health issues. Therefore, understanding the displays vulnerability for further substance use or mental health problems. The client reported that he had no previous treatment for alcohol or drugs.

Dr. Farnum met full DSM-IV criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder. In the interview, the client was prone to express and assert his superiority to others. He also verbalized throughout the interview how he was more successful than most people as he possessed a superior intellect and unique skills. Overall, the client negative or oppositional attitude toward the environment, likely impeding the formation of healthy relationships with others. The client responses suggested an excessive concern with issues of personal space and, perhaps, a lack of interest in interacting with others. Unfortunately, his ideational style suggested relative inflexibility. As a result, of the client behaviors, others may get the impression that he has little concern regarding their opinions or values. For example, when discussing his thoughts about himself in relation to others

The client has some difficulty tolerating and coping with physical problems. Problems may interfere with recovery and mental health treatment. This patient may cause neglect care of serious problems affecting the client. Moreover, it was also noted that the client is functionally impaired during acute illness or from chronic symptoms, and illness interferes with treatment. The main severe symptoms of emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems, very poor impulse control and coping skills. Additionally, the client displays inconsistent compliance, minimal awareness of either the client’s addiction or mental disorder, and is minimally cooperative.

Defense Mechanisms: The client minimizes the impact or severity of his illness by applying the essence of denial cases from his actions such as drinking alcohol.

The motivation for Change: The client appears poorly motivated for change.

Addictive Behaviors: The client describes problems with prescription opioids, as is elsewhere described.

The client has no awareness of the negative impact of mental health problems or substance abuse. No coping skills to arrest mental health or addiction illnesses.

The understanding of narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of grandiosity which is either in fantasy or actual behavior. Similarly, it is an overwhelming need for admiration and can usually be a complete lack of empathy towards others as experienced by the patient in this context. Therefore, it is essential to understand the primary goals and objectives which can be achieved in the short and long term as part of diagnostic measures. The personality disorders such as narcissistic are mainly diagnosed by a trained mental health professional such as psychologist (Caligor, Levy & Yeomans, 2015). The families, physicians, and general practitioners are generally not trained or well equipped to ensure this type of psychological diagnosis is managed. The goal is to get treatment as soon as possible for childhood mental health problems to be put into consideration. The aim of this is to assist in evaluating the relevant aspects which might be the cause. Similarly, the other goal is to participate in family therapy to learn healthy ways of communicating or coping with conflicts and emotional distress (Caligor, Levy & Yeomans, 2015). Lastly, the other goal is to attend parenting classes to seek guidance from therapists with assistance from a mental health professional


Caligor, E., Levy, K. N., & Yeomans, F. E. (2015). Narcissistic personality disorder: diagnostic and clinical challenges. American Journal of Psychiatry172(5), 415-422.