Gene Testing

Gene Testing

Considering a number of issues, the testing of genes to determine whether an individual is at risk of a particular disorder may not be an agreeable affair to many. To begin with, the ordeal of looking for one’s risk to multiple disorders is highly costly. In the event that the results that indicate susceptibleness to a certain disorder/disease are reported to the insurance company, the premiums are as a result raised. The knowledge that one is predisposed to develop a specific complication may lead to stress and anxiety. Such complications may be an unnecessary burden because the complexity may never develop at all.

The lack of certainty is another factor that renders genetic testing for health disorder risk altogether a futile effort. Ideally, the test results only indicate whether an individual has a higher or a lower chance than the average person of developing said complications. For instance, the risk with a specific variety of gene mutation may be declared to have a 75% risk for breast cancer. Still, it is possible that it may never develop. Conversely, another individual whose test results indicated a 25% chance may end up developing the complication. Specific mutations only show the risk, but cannot precisely predict incidence.

There is a possibility that chromosome or gene mutation will not be detected in some people. This is more indicative of the fact that the current technologies are not capable of detecting some variations, especially when there are no significant genetic mutations. Moreover, genetic disorders are not the root cause for all diseases as both lifestyle and environmental factors also play a crucial role in determining the illnesses one will suffer from. On this basis, gene testing may not be a sure way of assessing the health risks that an individual faces. 

Another limitation to gene testing is that although some diseases may come as a direct consequence of faulty gene makeup, it is not necessarily true that the procedure will reveal this fact. Genetic tests are mainly limited to the testing of penetrant diseases-those that are strongly connected to a particular gene makeup. Furthermore, it is not possible to use the criteria to determine the severity of the disease incidence once it occurs. The process will only provide limited info about an inherited complication. In addition to not showing the seriousness of the condition once it occurs, there is no indication in the results as to how far the condition will progress. There is also a lack of strategic treatment plans for the illness once it occurs. 

Gene testing can prove to be an emotionally consuming affair; especially to children of under 18 years of age, as well as, adults who are unprepared to the verdict of the results. Upon receiving the news that they are 75% prone to get cancer, some may develop stress, guilt, anxiety, or depression. This may lead to additional health complications which are unfounded since cancer may never develop. Further, there are cases of individuals who may develop guilt as a result of the learning that some people in their family have certain gene mutations which they lack themselves. There is also the possibility of tension and panic within the family if the test results are shared. Therefore, I would not want to have my genes or that of my children due to the compelling consequences of the practice.

Comparison on low carbohydrate diets

Comparison on low carbohydrate diets

Comparison on low carbohydrate diets

Comparison on low carbohydrate diets and low calorie or low-fat diets.

The composition of the diet is a critical element which plays a critical role in both the maintenance of weight changes and weight loss. There has been a debate for many years regarding the opinion on which composition to consider in such processes. Studies have suggested different conclusions regarding ways to promote food guide pyramid for individual considering losing or maintaining weight. Therefore, comparing low carbohydrate diets and low calorie or low-fat diets is vital to determine the best measure for maintaining and losing weight.

The benefits of carbohydrates are the provision of energy where the body breaks down fats and proteins as an alternative. Further, the drop in the levels of protein can lead to muscle wasting and impaired immune function making it more vulnerable to infection. However, breaking down the stored fat in a long time may lead to weight loss (Hu, Mills, Yao, Demanelis, Eloustaz, Yancy Jr, & Bazzano, 2012). Substantially, this process takes place because carbohydrates raise insulin levels higher than either fats or proteins. This, in turn, promotes the intake of glucose by cells for survival.

Losing fats, on the other hand, is essential for people with obese in long term weight loss as indicated by various studies. low fats are also essential and recommended for weight loss since it provides a greater number of calories per grams compared to other major nutrients (Hu, Yao, Reynolds, Whelton, Niu, Li & Bazzano, 2015). As a result, this implies that weight loss achieved primarily in low carb diet is considered not down to fat loss since it leads to weight loss through the muscle and water. In general, the loss of weight through fats and proteins is essential for most people. However, it is only useful because it leads to a small weight loss on average. The loss of weight through carbohydrates is the most recommended method to lose a lot of weight in general because it assists in breaking down proteins leading to losses of muscle and water.

References.

Hu, T., Yao, L., Reynolds, K., Whelton, P., Niu, T., Li, S., … & Bazzano, L. (2015). The effects of a low-carbohydrate diet vs. a low-fat diet on novel cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients7(9), 7978-7994.

Hu, T., Mills, K. T., Yao, L., Demanelis, K., Eloustaz, M., Yancy Jr, W. S., … & Bazzano, L. A. (2012). Effects of low-carbohydrate diets versus low-fat diets on metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. American journal of epidemiology176(suppl_7), S44-S54.