Gene Testing

Gene Testing

Considering a number of issues, the testing of genes to determine whether an individual is at risk of a particular disorder may not be an agreeable affair to many. To begin with, the ordeal of looking for one’s risk to multiple disorders is highly costly. In the event that the results that indicate susceptibleness to a certain disorder/disease are reported to the insurance company, the premiums are as a result raised. The knowledge that one is predisposed to develop a specific complication may lead to stress and anxiety. Such complications may be an unnecessary burden because the complexity may never develop at all.

The lack of certainty is another factor that renders genetic testing for health disorder risk altogether a futile effort. Ideally, the test results only indicate whether an individual has a higher or a lower chance than the average person of developing said complications. For instance, the risk with a specific variety of gene mutation may be declared to have a 75% risk for breast cancer. Still, it is possible that it may never develop. Conversely, another individual whose test results indicated a 25% chance may end up developing the complication. Specific mutations only show the risk, but cannot precisely predict incidence.

There is a possibility that chromosome or gene mutation will not be detected in some people. This is more indicative of the fact that the current technologies are not capable of detecting some variations, especially when there are no significant genetic mutations. Moreover, genetic disorders are not the root cause for all diseases as both lifestyle and environmental factors also play a crucial role in determining the illnesses one will suffer from. On this basis, gene testing may not be a sure way of assessing the health risks that an individual faces. 

Another limitation to gene testing is that although some diseases may come as a direct consequence of faulty gene makeup, it is not necessarily true that the procedure will reveal this fact. Genetic tests are mainly limited to the testing of penetrant diseases-those that are strongly connected to a particular gene makeup. Furthermore, it is not possible to use the criteria to determine the severity of the disease incidence once it occurs. The process will only provide limited info about an inherited complication. In addition to not showing the seriousness of the condition once it occurs, there is no indication in the results as to how far the condition will progress. There is also a lack of strategic treatment plans for the illness once it occurs. 

Gene testing can prove to be an emotionally consuming affair; especially to children of under 18 years of age, as well as, adults who are unprepared to the verdict of the results. Upon receiving the news that they are 75% prone to get cancer, some may develop stress, guilt, anxiety, or depression. This may lead to additional health complications which are unfounded since cancer may never develop. Further, there are cases of individuals who may develop guilt as a result of the learning that some people in their family have certain gene mutations which they lack themselves. There is also the possibility of tension and panic within the family if the test results are shared. Therefore, I would not want to have my genes or that of my children due to the compelling consequences of the practice.

Comparison on low carbohydrate diets

Comparison on low carbohydrate diets

Comparison on low carbohydrate diets

Comparison on low carbohydrate diets and low calorie or low-fat diets.

The composition of the diet is a critical element which plays a critical role in both the maintenance of weight changes and weight loss. There has been a debate for many years regarding the opinion on which composition to consider in such processes. Studies have suggested different conclusions regarding ways to promote food guide pyramid for individual considering losing or maintaining weight. Therefore, comparing low carbohydrate diets and low calorie or low-fat diets is vital to determine the best measure for maintaining and losing weight.

The benefits of carbohydrates are the provision of energy where the body breaks down fats and proteins as an alternative. Further, the drop in the levels of protein can lead to muscle wasting and impaired immune function making it more vulnerable to infection. However, breaking down the stored fat in a long time may lead to weight loss (Hu, Mills, Yao, Demanelis, Eloustaz, Yancy Jr, & Bazzano, 2012). Substantially, this process takes place because carbohydrates raise insulin levels higher than either fats or proteins. This, in turn, promotes the intake of glucose by cells for survival.

Losing fats, on the other hand, is essential for people with obese in long term weight loss as indicated by various studies. low fats are also essential and recommended for weight loss since it provides a greater number of calories per grams compared to other major nutrients (Hu, Yao, Reynolds, Whelton, Niu, Li & Bazzano, 2015). As a result, this implies that weight loss achieved primarily in low carb diet is considered not down to fat loss since it leads to weight loss through the muscle and water. In general, the loss of weight through fats and proteins is essential for most people. However, it is only useful because it leads to a small weight loss on average. The loss of weight through carbohydrates is the most recommended method to lose a lot of weight in general because it assists in breaking down proteins leading to losses of muscle and water.


Hu, T., Yao, L., Reynolds, K., Whelton, P., Niu, T., Li, S., … & Bazzano, L. (2015). The effects of a low-carbohydrate diet vs. a low-fat diet on novel cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients7(9), 7978-7994.

Hu, T., Mills, K. T., Yao, L., Demanelis, K., Eloustaz, M., Yancy Jr, W. S., … & Bazzano, L. A. (2012). Effects of low-carbohydrate diets versus low-fat diets on metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. American journal of epidemiology176(suppl_7), S44-S54.

Fictitious Nursing Program

Fictitious Nursing Program

Fictitious Nursing Program

Discussion one

The quality for nursing education program is significant for any institution to produce graduates that are competent practitioners. Further, the relevant issue to consider is based on the broader context of national accreditation standards which should be met as expected in terms of public interest and service delivery. Therefore, achieving the outcome expected from a nursing program needs to involve various stakeholders. Various stakeholders consist of the school board committee, the national education board, as well as the association of the nurse’s practitioners. The school board committee has the role of approving the nursing program to be included among the courses to be offered by the university.

Additionally, the national education board is also significant in recommending whether the nursing program has adhered to the rules or standards of content provided by the university. Moreover, the association of nursing practitioners has the role of approving the ethical standards in practice being offered by the university. Their objective is to determine if the program provided in the university is in according to the nursing practices within the health care system. The association of nursing practitioners are also influential in collaborating with the institutions offering nursing programs in conducting scientific or clinical research for evidence-based practice.

Discussion two

The process of developing a nursing program should involve various stakeholders within the field of the health care system to meet the standards expected in the delivery of services in health care systems. As a result, to achieve this initiative, it is relevant to invite various influential members to assist in the approval process. One of the stakeholders to include consist of clinical researchers. They are significant because they are among the individuals leading in the development innovations to improve the health care system. The other stakeholder to invite in the curriculum committee both the association of institutions offering nursing programs and the association of nursing practitioners.

Challenges in Nursing Management and Leadership

Challenges in Nursing Management and Leadership

Challenges in Nursing Management and Leadership

In the contemporary world, healthcare is facing a threatening challenge in the process of reinventing the quality-driven in the delivery care system. Further, some of the issues consist of fiscally sound as well as provision of evidence-based care while there is an increasing workforce, which is aging, and the population of the baby boomers requiring care is growing more than the supply of the delivery system. The practice of positive professional environments is critical for nurses to perform in a dynamic period of constant change. However, there are various challenges which can be experienced in the nursing management and leadership that needs to be put into consideration. Recruitment, as well as retention issues, is one of the factors affecting nursing leadership and management. The development of innovative technology is also another factor affecting nursing leadership and management. It is the role of managers and leaders to enhance the application of creative and innovative ways to take care of patients. The cultural awareness of patient care is also a significant challenge which should be determined. Substantially, this provides an overview for people to pay attention to other cultures while providing care. Employee engagement and promoting self-care are also some of the challenges affecting nursing leadership and management in a different dimension. In general, these are some of the problems which need to be put into consideration by the association of nurses within the country. 

Summary (Evidence to support the need for a change)

The need to respond to the challenge of improving the quality of nursing leadership and management. It is essential to address various concepts incorporating these issues into perspectives. Moreover, improving the problems affecting nursing leaders and management is determined to be a complex issue in contemporary practice. The focus should be on the standardization of solution given the various practice settings and widely varying nurse skills and competencies. It is essential to understand that leaders in the world are looking to identify and implement the best strategies in maintaining as well as improving the execution of practices to enhance leadership and management system. As a result, this has led to an inquiry that has led to the clinically relevant PICOT question as follows. In the provision of health care practice for nurses (P), how does the application and participation of leadership and management style in health care (I) compared to no or limited participation (C) affects the staff retention, innovative technology and cultural awareness of patient care (O)?

The following are the list of systematic review chosen for the study

Garcia, A. B., Maziero, V. G., Rocha, F. L. R., Bernardes, A., & Gabriel, C. S. (2015). Influência da cultura organizacional na gestão participativa em organizações de saúde/Influence of organizational culture on participatory management in health organizations/Influencia de la cultura organizacional en la gestión participativa en las organizaciones de salud. Revista de Pesquisa, Cuidado é Fundamental Online7(2), 2615.

de Moura, A. A., Bernardes, A., Balsanelli, A. P., Zanetti, A. C. B., & Gabriel, C. S. (2017). Leadership and nursing work satisfaction: an integrative review. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem30(4), 442-450.

Valente, G. S. C., Barreto, B. M. F., do Nascimento Tavares, D., de Lima Brandão, J., Gonçalves, J. C. P., & Ferreira, F. D. C. (2013). Continuing/permanent education as a strategy for managing of nursing in the unique health system: an integrative review. Revista de Pesquisa: Cuidado é Fundamental Online5(3), 85-93.

There are various findings that have been received from these sources provided by different authors. The cultural formation is posed as a cumulative, social, as well as historical construct process that can assist in addressing the issues of nursing leadership and management. Similar to the organization structure, different aspects need to be put into consideration. The culture of an organization can influences the type of leadership and management of an institution. Substantially, this is because it does have a direct impact on the management style needed to be adopted, and the possibility of organizational change (Garcia, Maziero, Rocha, Bernardes, & Gabriel, 2015). More importantly, the application of the theoretical framework of leadership as instrumental in the use to measure leadership and job satisfaction. It is vital to understand that nursing leadership in the hospital setting with the indirect and direct relationship developed between leadership and nurse job satisfaction. Additionally, it is established that out of deficit experienced regarding the theoretical basis for nursing leadership, there is a direct link to the low instrumentalization of the professionals. This is connected to performing it in their work environment and also to the low determined valorisation.

Some concepts of transformational leadership, as well as contended characteristics, can be significant in stimulating and also managing employees to share the vision and use of motivational inspiration to obtain the goals set. One of the evidence-based solutions which should be considered in the development of continuing or even permanent education being a strategy to be applied. This is critical for managing nursing in the unique health system to assist in increasing the target of attention of implementing changes in the management and leadership of health care systems. The characteristics of this concept are to ensure the provision of training programs to allow both the managers and leaders in nursing to incorporate workers to maintain and improve their skills. These would be beneficial in the development of responsibilities, competencies as well as individual attributes to the potential for change in leadership. 

The Action Plans

There are various core standards that need to be put into consideration to assist in supporting the intervention planning to improve the challenge in nursing leadership and management. The development of local culture to understand new skills to apply them to practice critically is one of the significant measures to be followed. The main focus on this issue is to determine the management elements that can tolerate diversity, space promotions, conflict visions to create a balance between everyone and hierarchical methods. It is also essential to understand various stakeholders involved in this mission and to determine their role and responsibilities to assist in changing the process of leadership and management in a nursing system. The nursing staff is one of the stakeholders who have the function of inspiring each other to work together to obtain a common goal. This is effective in grooming some personal qualities which leaders can emulate, such as integrity, courage, and ability to enhance emotional intelligence that is useful for management practices in nursing. The other important stakeholder is the government agencies responsible for nursing and health care services. Their role is to promote the development of functional units to implement strong interpersonal skills to be successful. They often assist in coordinating interdisciplinary training programs that support the establishment of leadership qualities. 

Implementation of The Plan

The process of implementing the strategy developed is through the formation of leadership, which corresponds to a leadership model that provides an approach to promote the organizational as well as a personal change in nursing practice. The framework to be used should propose more on the appropriate concerns for the situation by developing intent for achieving the goals of future leadership and management systems. Substantially, this framework should incorporate the shape of organization culture to ensure that members of the institution can complete the same mission where managers can adopt the most appropriate leadership style to manage workers in a given direction. 

The plan for educating nursing staff about the changes will take place at different levels or arrangements. The initial stage will be creating awareness on the concern for leadership and management challenges that need to be improved. Substantially this will address issues such as the development of innovative technology, retention of nursing staff, and the cultural impacts in management. The correlation of this form is to provide a platform between the ideological culture and the transformational leadership to coordinate the nursing team and its leaders. The timeline for this change process will run for six months to fully integrate the mission to the targeted groups of individuals involved. The measurable outcomes for this PICOT question will focus on the different factors which need to be put into consideration. These consist of the types of leadership styles that need to be incorporated into nursing practices. The other measurable outcome is the characteristics of the leadership and management process, which should be implemented in the long term. 


The outcomes of the trial can be reported in various ways to address the issues raised. One of the best ways is through the publication of nursing journals. The benefit of this is to reach many professionals in the industry through reading and applying the recommendations made. The other way to report the outcomes from the trial can mainly be from addressing it in the internal organization. Substantially, this can be done by conveying internal meetings in the company to discuss the way formed on how to implement these elements.  The next steps for the use of the change process information would be following the feedback from the health care organizations which have implemented the trials. The focus is to determine the significance of the benefits which have been achieved after a given period.