Final exam

Biomimicry possesses
June 28, 2020
Competitiveness and Sustainable Construction
June 29, 2020

Final exam

Cockpit is installed and continuously operated at the beginning of checklist use

Final exam

43.10 (a)

This paragraph contains or definitions utilized in section 43.10. The paragraph defines two terms which are:

  1. Life-limited part, which is utilized the section to indicate any part that require a mandatory limit on replacement  as specified in maintenance manual, continued airworthiness instructions or the category of design.
  2. Life status indicates the accumulated hours, cycles or any other category of mandatory limit for replacement of life-limited parts

67.409 (a)

This paragraph provides a loophole, or the procedure for reapplying a medical certificate. In particular, the paragraph indicates that any individual that is denied a medical certificate has an opportunity to reapply within 30 days starting from denial date, by applying in writing and duplicate, for reconsideration to the Federal Air surgeon. Nevertheless, the organization considers any person who does not submit his or her reapplication within the 30 day window period to have withdrawn from the application.

Explain 121.359 (a)

This paragraph indicates that unless when an approved cockpit is installed and continuously operated at the beginning of checklist use, which is before the engine is started at the beginning of a flight, to the last checklist that is performed at the flight termination, there is no certificate holder who is allowed to operate aircrafts powered by a large turbine engine or a large pressurized aircraft with 4 reciprocating engine.

14 CFR 135.21 (a)

14 CFR 135.21 possesses the operating demands for on-demand, as well as commuter operations. 14 CFR 135.21 (a) indicates that every holder of an operation certificate, with an exception of operators using one pilot in their certificates, must formulate and regularly update a manual outlining policies and procedures that are acceptable to the administrator. Furthermore, the certificate holder’s personnel must utilize the manual to perform maintenance, flight and ground activities (CFR, 2019). Nevertheless, the administrator may allow the deviation from the specification of this paragraph, especially when considering limited size of operations that may render part or the entire manual unnecessary for guiding maintenance, ground and flight activities.

14 CFR 141.75

14CFR 141.75 provides the requirements for solo and training flights. In particular, 14 CCFR 141.75 (a) indicates that each aircraft utilized for solo and training flights must carry pretakeoff and prelanding checklist. 141.75 (b) notes that training and solo flights must include an operators’ manual, especially if it is supplied by the aircraft’s manufacturer and copies of the operators’ manual if it is supplied for each student utilizing the aircraft (CFR, 2019).

Use of Bio data

The primary argument for using bio data in the recruitment of air traffic is that it can be used to predict the performance of newly hired air traffic controllers. Previous studies indicate that hiring controller trainee with significant and relevant military experience in flight management can considerably improve the FAA training. Moreover, other studies have established that higher GPAs and average score in mathematics and physics can be used to predict the performance controller training (Pierce & Pfleiderer, 2018). Therefore, FAA conducts bio data check before recommending individuals foe AT-SAT sub tests in the process of hiring controller trainee.

Runway Incursions

According to the FAA runway incursions refers to any occurrence or incidence at the aerodrome, especially involving unexpected presence of a vehicle, person or aircraft on the runway. The FAA classifies incursions into three categories that are operational deviations, pedestrian or vehicle deviations or pilot deviations (Pierce & Pfleiderer, 2018). Notably, the classification is made with regard the cause of the incursions.


Nextgen is an effort led by FAA which focuses on modernizing the air transportation system in the United States. In particular, NextGen focuses on making flying more predictable and more efficient. In this project, FAA and its affiliates focuses on conducting a major overhauls project that will include implementation of new capabilities and technologies that will significantly improve the performance the US air space. After adopting new technologies and capabilities, it will become extremely easier to recover services after incidences and conduct maintenance activities. Furthermore, apart from increasing the capacity of the airspace system, NextGen, which adopts robust new technologies, will significantly reduce aviation incidences (Hampton, 2017). Therefore, rather than conducting minor upgrades to the existing infrastructure which significantly increases the chances of accidents, FAA considers NextGen valuable and feasible project. 


CFR. (2019). Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR). Retrieved from

Hampton, M. E. (2017). FAA Has Made Progress Implementing NextGen Priorities, but Additional Actions Are Needed To Improve Risk Management (No. AV2018001).

Johnson, M. E., Zhao, X., Faulkner, B., & Young, J. P. (2016). Statistical Models of Runway Incursions Based on Runway Intersections and Taxiways. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering5(2). doi:10.7771/2159-6670.1121

Pierce, L. G., & Pfleiderer, E. M. (2018, September). Assessing a Retention Policy for Air Traffic Controllers. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 777-781). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

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