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 Karissa post

 I do not believe prenatal testing should be mandatory as it would be a violation of our constitutional rights. In addition, there are serious moral and ethical considerations to be pondered in this matter. “The right to make choices about one’s health care is protected, in part, by the right to privacy guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution, as well as state constitutions. This includes a right to make certain reproductive choices, such as whether to use genetic testing. It also includes a right to refuse treatment.” (Andrews, 1994). Counseling by your obstetrician and/or doctor is available anytime you have a question and should be utilized by anyone no matter what the issue may be. Prenatal testing can cause miscarriage in some cases and a Doctor would be  placed in a precarious situation if the testing resulted in the death of a fetus. With an amniocentesis the risk of miscarriage is 1 in 400 and with CVS (Chorionic Villus Sampling) it is about one percent according to the Mayo Clinic (Nierenberg, 2018). Even though the risk is lower for an amniocentesis, it is still there none the less. Imagine being a woman who has been trying to get pregnant for a long time would you want to take that risk? It is possible that she has gone through fertility treatments that are costly, or is getting older and having trouble conceiving. First do no harm is one of the oaths a doctor pledges when they are to become a person within a practice. I feel that this would be a violation of this oath. I also feel that parents have the right to choose what they will or will not do with their bodies. “An entirely different standard of privacy protects personal information. A few court decisions find protection for such information under the constitutional doctrine of privacy, but more commonly, privacy protection against disclosure of personal information is found under common law tort principles. In addition, there is a federal privacy act, as well as state statutes protecting privacy.” (Andrews, 1994). Bodily autonomy is of great importance for so many reasons, forcing someone to undergo testing and counseling they do not want is illegal (unless authorized by a court of law). 

Jennifer post


I do not think that prenatal testing and counseling should be mandatory.   Offering this testing to obstetric patients in Texas is  mandatory as of now.  Working in a lab, I know that no test is 100 percent accurate.  There is always a chance of false positives.  I believe if this testing was made mandatory, it would lead to more early pregnancy terminations.  This could lead to “designer” babies where only genetically perfect children were born and those with genetic imperfections would be terminated.  This could be seen as a forced cleansing of a population if it were to be mandated by the government.

In your response to Alison and Kendrick post comment on their suggestions about alternatives. How realistic you think their suggestions are, and what additional thoughts can you offer that would make their suggestions even more effective? Be sure to ask Alison and Kendric an open end question.

Alison post


In the past, adults have been quick to jump to medication for children with hyperactivity. However, research has brought forth the negative effects of these medications and children, and parents and teachers are looking for new methods to handle these extraordinary children. As Allen (2014) discusses in The Exceptional Children: Inclusion in Early Childhood Education not everyone surrounding a child with hyperactivity, sees it as a negative thing.

Alternatives that allow the hyperactive child in play and learning along with their peers would be modifying the lessons or environment. For example, a student who cannot sit for long periods of time may become the ‘paper passer’ during lessons. This job allows the student to walk around, while not being disruptive of others and keeping them in the classroom environment. Creating activities that involve using their hands or running around outside help their activity level. Modifying the classroom environment can come in various ways. Today there are multiple options for classroom seating, from original desks to bounce balls and clip boards. Utilizing small movements such as bouncing in a seat, can help a student with ADHD keep concentrated as well.

Classroom management techniques are not much different than when dealing with another child. Some extra patience is needed; however, it is important to stay calm and to stay fair. When a student is diagnosed with a learning disability, keeping everyone in communication is important. Evaluations, notes, and observations should be shared across all parties to guarantee a seamless transition from one environment to another. Staying patient with all children is great, as diminishing their attempts at learning (at any stage) could cause negative feelings toward learning.

My question: What techniques have you used in your own classroom to cope with hyperactive children?

Kendric post


The one thing I will point is that it does take a lot of patience to work with children no matter if the child is hyperactive or not. I use in my classroom time on task. I assign duties to the children in my classroom. I have quite a few hyperactive children in my classroom so I will assign one child to pick up the carpet squares after reading time because it provides them time to interact with their peers while still having something to focus on while completing the assigned duty. I would have another child to count and push the chairs to the table to the correct way; this is also a learning activity while completing assigned duty, too. Those children who are hyperactive should be closer to the front of the classroom for the teacher to catch those moments when he or she is starting to display negative actions. It is important to remember as a teacher to never put a hyperactive child next to a talkative child because it does not work; I learned that the hard way.  It is so important to offer modifications and accommodations to those students with hyperactivity because sometimes the attention span is not there completely. When comes to giving directions, teachers should ask for feedback or have that child (ren) repeat the directions. Assistive technology is so important; this could be low to high technologies for the children. Eye contact is another important cue to keep the child’s attention before giving instructions. Verbal cues such as “eyes up here” or “this is important” and maintain a close physical proximity. Directions should be stated to children in a positive term or method. Students with high energy levels may be more likely to engage in distracting behavior when they are forced to sit through long periods of lecture or independent seatwork. Instead, offer students frequent opportunities for more movement by designing instruction to actively engage them as learners ( e.g., cooperative learning). An additional advantage of less formal, more spontaneous learning activities is that when the overactive child does happen to display motor behaviors in this relaxed setting, those behaviors are less likely to distract peers (DuPaul & Stoner, 2002).

When it comes to positive behavior, I use various things in my classroom. One thing I use is my motto every day, it is repeated by every child in the classroom. The motto is pat yourself on the back and tell yourself that you are a superstar. I use behavior charts and star pins. The star pin is just a clothespin with some star stickers on it. For example, if you are count doing something good (positive) in the classroom then you can earn the star pin. The star pin has three counterbalances in my eyes in my classroom. One way it supports the children with positive behavior, but it balances the behavior chart in the classroom, too. The child at the end of the day makes the final choice with the star pin; he or she makes the choice to pick a prize or keep his/her color on the behavior chart. The child has choices and decisions to make without being forced by me as the teacher. It is important to empower children to make choices. What type of assistive technology do you use in your classroom for special education students?

In responding to Brittany and Jill post be constructive and professional response.

Brittany post


Gender roles play a part in myths in many different cultures. Most Gods were male and Goddess were female and the males would take on the role of providing for the family while the females would take care of the children and the home. If a certain genders was not in a myth, then they were not needed and whatever the certain gender was could take care of and handle any situation that may arise.

However, Gods and mortals are different. Gods could make life happy, sad, cause tragedy, or miracles and mortals were expected to look up to the Gods or Goddess and be ok with whatever decision was made because they have the final say so of justice over nature, mortals, and even each other. When I think about this, I think about my relationship with my God, I look up to him for guidance and believe in him though I do not agree with him, I cannot change his path that he has made for me weather it be good or terrifying.

Jill post


It is interesting how gender roles are played out in the myths. Many myths have defined gender roles , some considered Gods (men) Goddess (women) and how their roles differed . The Gods were often seen as protectors or providers. Where Goddess are often seen more the motherly role or someone who oversee the family and children. In some cultures such as Hindu, this is different. In Hindu many of the gods do not have a specific gender but oversee something instead. Some of these Gods oversee wind, fire, water , mind , body and many more. In Hindu, there are Gods and Goddess. But there are also some that do not have a specific gender.

I think looking at Adam and Eve, you see the specific gender roles . By having the different gender roles specified in some cultures this is used to set the standards or roles of each gender.

It is interesting now, how people are trying to make everything equal. Even to the point of having a stay at home dad more acceptable. It is interesting to look at history with the myths and how the standards are there for men and women and how over the years people have tried to change these ideas. I find it interesting that gender roles started so long ago or male dominance started many years ago.


Review Kianna and Nicole post. What themes do you see emerging? In your response to other learners, comment on how their posting fits in with these themes and what their posting suggests for the importance of speech therapy in early childhood education. Be sure to ask Kianna and Nicole an open ended question.

Kianna post


According to Allen & Cowdery (2015), “Communication is the exchange of thoughts and ideas, feelings, emotions, likes, and dislikes (pg. 415).” Speech is a very big part of communication, but communication can be nonverbal (i.e. gestures, nods). When looking at students who have speech and language delays, it can affect their development, socially, academically, and emotionally. From my experience, students suffer socially with their peers by having expressive language issues. According to the Understood Team (2014), “Expressive language issues is a condition that makes it hard to put thoughts into words.” With that, I think some students do not talk to their peers because they are afraid that they will be misunderstood. They know what they want to say, when thinking, but not how to express themselves. This can cause some students to be shy. Academically, if a child is delayed, they can suffer by not understanding certain vocabulary or simple directions through receptive language. According to Allen & Cowdery (2015), “Carrying out directions that include common prepositions such as in, on, under, and over is often baffling (pg. 186).” Students with speech and language issues, can also have hard time answering questions or presenting information. This can be due to them thinking students/teachers won’t understand them or being embarrassed by their speech. I had a student, when told to present for show and tell, would whisper to me what she wanted to say because she was nervous about her speech. When looking at students emotionally, their delays can affect them significantly. While some students may be nervous or shy about their speech, others react angrily about it. There was a student a couple of years ago who had a significant speech delay. Whenever he would try to explain himself or answer a question, people had a hard time understanding him. When that happened, he would have a meltdown or outburst, and would start yelling and crying. He eventually got speech services and began to be better in the classroom because his speech had improved. I think this happens to a lot of students. They feel frustrated because they are not being heard or understood, we as adults go through that as well. It is important that we talk to the students to understand them more and get the services they need.

Question: What are ways that, we as educators, can help a student improve their speech without speech services?

Nicole post


  If a child is lacking in their speech and language development and has trouble with communication, there are many difficulties the child may face. If a child does not have the appropriate language or speech skills that they should at their age, it will be very hard for them to communicate with other children. If we think about speech in general, it can be hard to understand a child (as an adult) if they have some sort of impediment. If this child is talking to another child who does not have the same language or vocabulary as an adult, it must be much harder for them to understand. They are also more likely to point out that something is wrong with the child if they can’t understand. It is important that adults help to facilitate conversation. “Teachers and children become partners and share responsibility for selecting and maintaining communicative interaction. Teachers arrange the learning environment so that every child has many opportunities to talk” (Allen & Cowdery, p. 426).

If a child is behind on their language development, they may not even be able to communicate verbally. This would definitely be challenging to create positive peer relationships, as they are unable to communicate effectively. A child with speech and language development may have problems with social development due to their inability to communicate. They may also run into academic problems if they are unable to understand what the teacher is saying, or unable to process the information. This may also make the child feel unwanted and lonely, and may lead to very low self-esteem. With adult help, a child with language and speech development issues may find success in communicating with their peers. “Many children with developmental problems require direct and specific assistance in order to develop language and communication skills. Direct assistance is used to augment—not replace—the rick and responsive communication environment of a quality inclusion program” (Allen & Cowdery, p. 428).

What are some ways you can help a child build their confidence in order to initiate and maintain positive peer interactions?