Teacher Directed Instruction
Direct instruction is the most widely used strategy by practitioners in classrooms today. It consists of five elements that guide instruction from beginning to end. However, the direct instruction model also receives a great deal of criticism in the progressive classrooms of todays school system. In chapter six the authors highlight two main components of the Direct Instruction Model.
Identify those two main components and describe the elements of each of them.
After reading the advantages and disadvantages of lecturing, take a stance on lecturing and defend whether you feel it is an effective strategy.
Questioning is complex, summarize what the author is stating about questioning as an instructional tool.
Explain why educators need to ask questions that require students to use higher order thinking skills.
Read from your text, Curriculum and Instruction for the 21st Century Chapter 6: Evidence-based Models of Teaching This chapter explores a variety of teacher-led and student-centered instructional models.
6.3 Teacher-Directed Models of Teaching
If students are to become self-regulated learners, the classroom should include both teacher-directed and student-centered structures (Slavin, 1997). Students always will need some direct instruction, some individual time, and some opportunities to practice metacognitive skills in a social context. Teacher-directed instruction involves explicitly teaching rules, concepts, principles, and problem-solving strategies and guiding students during their review and practice. Within this larger category that constitutes teacher-directed models are many sub-models of instruction. We will discuss two of them: direct instruction and concept learning. Direct Instruction
Direct instruction has been shown by research to be a highly effective model (Hattie, 2009). The most recognized proponent of direct instruction was Madeline Hunter, whose model dominated classrooms in the later part of the 20th century. According to Hunter (1983), direct instruction consists of five interrelated elements.
State learning objectives, and orient students to the lesson Tell students what they will learn and what will be expected of them. State the goals and objectives of the lesson. Establish a mental set or attitude of readiness to learn.
Present new material Teach the lesson, presenting information by demonstrating or modeling the concepts.
Provide guided practice, and conduct learning probes Students practice new material under teachers guidance.
Demonstrate closure Students formulate their own statement of the learning goal.
Perform independent practice The teacher releases students to practice new material on their own. (p. 319)
Unfortunately, many educators have criticized the direct instruction model, misperceiving this instructional method as wholly teacher-dominated and simply comprised of lectures from the front of the classroom.
Direct instruction usually has two main components: expository teaching and questioning. While there are many forms of exposition (lecture, textbook, video, Internet), lecture is by far the most often used format of expository instruction (Bligh, 2000). Lecturing
According to Moore (2015), The lecture is an excellent way to set up an atmosphere for learning about a new topic, create a frame of reference, introduce a unit, or provide focus for student activities (p. 320). There will always be a place for lecture in classrooms because every teacher employs some form of this method every day. The lecture is also time efficient and, when based on the textbook, requires virtually no advance preparation of materials. However, as we all know, lectures are passive and rarely are engaging for learners. Teachers need to understand both the advantages of the lecture method and also the limitations so that they may choose when and how to use it most effectively.
Advantages of lectures include:
Lectures are an easy way to transfer knowledge to students quickly.
Instructors, as the sole source of information, have more control over what they are teaching.
A lecture is fairly easy to prepare and is familiar to most teachers since it was typically the way they were taught.
Disadvantages of lectures include:
Humans receive more information visually than with any other mode of learning, and lectures are auditory.
Lectures may present difficult content or be delivered too rapidly for students to follow.
Because the instructor dominates the lecture, there is sometimes a gap in knowing what students did or did not understand.
Finally, since the lecture will always be a strategy that teachers use, many experts advise combining lecture with additional means of presentation of content (Meyer, Rose, & Gordon, 2013). Multimedia, technology, video, and questioning strategies offer options for understanding the content and make the direct instruction more interactive.