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Teacher Directed Instruction 
Direct instruction is the most widely used strategy by practitioners in classrooms today. It consists of five elements that guide instruction from beginning to end. However, the direct instruction model also receives a great deal of criticism in the progressive classrooms of today’s school system. In chapter six the authors highlight two main components of the Direct Instruction Model.  

Identify those two main components and describe the elements of each of them.

After reading the advantages and disadvantages of lecturing, take a stance on lecturing and defend whether you feel it is an effective strategy.

Questioning is complex, summarize what the author is stating about questioning as an instructional tool.

Explain why educators need to ask questions that require students to use higher order thinking skills. 

Read from your text, Curriculum and Instruction for the 21st Century Chapter 6: Evidence-based Models of Teaching This chapter explores a variety of teacher-led and student-centered instructional models. 



  6.3   Teacher-Directed  Models  of  Teaching

If  students  are  to  become  self-regulated  learners,  the classroom  should  include  both  teacher-directed  and student-centered  structures  (Slavin,  1997).  Students always  will  need  some  direct  instruction,  some individual  time,  and  some  opportunities  to  practice metacognitive  skills  in  a  social  context.  Teacher-directed  instruction  involves  explicitly  teaching  rules, concepts,  principles,  and  problem-solving  strategies  and guiding  students  during  their  review  and  practice. Within  this  larger  category  that  constitutes  teacher-directed  models  are  many  sub-models  of  instruction.  We will  discuss  two  of  them:  direct  instruction  and  concept learning. Direct  Instruction

Direct  instruction  has  been  shown  by  research  to  be  a highly  effective  model  (Hattie,  2009).  The  most recognized  proponent  of  direct  instruction  was  Madeline Hunter,  whose  model  dominated  classrooms  in  the  later part  of  the  20th  century.  According  to  Hunter  (1983), direct  instruction  consists  of  five  interrelated  elements.

State  learning  objectives,  and  orient  students  to  the lesson —Tell  students  what  they  will  learn  and  what will  be  expected  of  them.  State  the  goals  and  objectives of  the  lesson.  Establish  a  mental  set  or  attitude  of readiness  to  learn.

Present  new  material —Teach  the  lesson,  presenting information  by  demonstrating  or  modeling  the concepts.

Provide  guided  practice,  and  conduct  learning  probes —Students  practice  new  material  under  teacher’s guidance.

Demonstrate  closure— Students  formulate  their  own statement  of  the  learning  goal.

Perform  independent  practice —The  teacher  releases students  to  practice  new  material  on  their  own.  (p.  319)

Unfortunately,  many  educators  have  criticized  the  direct instruction  model,  misperceiving  this  instructional method  as  wholly  teacher-dominated  and  simply comprised  of  lectures  from  the  front  of  the  classroom.

Direct  instruction  usually  has  two  main  components: expository  teaching  and  questioning.  While  there  are many  forms  of  exposition  (lecture,  textbook,  video, Internet),  lecture  is  by  far  the  most  often  used  format  of expository  instruction  (Bligh,  2000). Lecturing

According  to  Moore  (2015),  “The  lecture  is  an  excellent way  to  set  up  an  atmosphere  for  learning  about  a  new topic,  create  a  frame  of  reference,  introduce  a  unit,  or provide  focus  for  student  activities”  (p.  320).  There  will always  be  a  place  for  lecture  in  classrooms  because every  teacher  employs  some  form  of  this  method  every day.  The  lecture  is  also  time  efficient  and,  when  based  on the  textbook,  requires  virtually  no  advance  preparation of  materials.  However,  as  we  all  know,  lectures  are passive  and  rarely  are  engaging  for  learners.  Teachers need  to  understand  both  the  advantages  of  the  lecture method  and  also  the  limitations  so  that  they  may  choose when  and  how  to  use  it  most  effectively.

Advantages  of  lectures  include:

Lectures  are  an  easy  way  to  transfer  knowledge  to students  quickly.

Instructors,  as  the  sole  source  of  information,  have more  control  over  what  they  are  teaching.

A  lecture  is  fairly  easy  to  prepare  and  is  familiar  to most  teachers  since  it  was  typically  the  way  they  were taught.

Disadvantages  of  lectures  include:

Humans  receive  more  information  visually  than  with any  other  mode  of  learning,  and  lectures  are  auditory.

Lectures  may  present  difficult  content  or  be  delivered too  rapidly  for  students  to  follow.

Because  the  instructor  dominates  the  lecture,  there  is sometimes  a  gap  in  knowing  what  students  did  or  did not  understand.


Finally,  since  the  lecture  will  always  be  a  strategy  that teachers  use,  many  experts  advise  combining  lecture with  additional  means  of  presentation  of  content  (Meyer, Rose,  &  Gordon,  2013).  Multimedia,  technology,  video, and  questioning  strategies  offer  options  for understanding  the  content  and  make  the  direct instruction  more  interactive.